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''(This page is currently under construction.)''
 
   
 
== Books and monographs ==
 
== Books and monographs ==
 
* William H Boothby, ''[http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law/9780199696611.001.0001/law-9780199696611 The Law of Targeting]'' (OUP 2012).
 
* William H Boothby, ''[http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law/9780199696611.001.0001/law-9780199696611 The Law of Targeting]'' (OUP 2012).
*William H Boothby, ''Weapons and the Law of Armed Conflict'' (OUP 2016).
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*William H Boothby, ''[https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law/9780198728504.001.0001/law-9780198728504 Weapons and the Law of Armed Conflict]'' (OUP 2016).
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*Dennis Broeders, ''[https://library.oapen.org/handle/20.500.12657/32439 The Public Core of the Internet]'' (Amsterdam University Press 2015).
*Oliver Corten, ''The Law against War'' (Hart Pub 2010).
 
  +
*Ian Brownlie, ''[http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198251583.001.0001/acprof-9780198251583 International Law and the Use of Force by States]'' (OUP 1963).
*James Crawford, ''Brownlie's Principles of Public International Law'' (OUP 2012).
 
  +
* Geoffrey S. Corn and others, [https://www.aspenpublishing.com/Corn-Conflict2#:~:text=The%20Law%20of%20Armed%20Conflict%3A%20An%20Operational%20Approach%20covers%20all,in%20regulation%20of%20military%20operations. The Law of Armed Conflict: An Operational Approach] (2nd edn, Wolters Kluwer 2019).
*James Crawford, ''State Responsibility: The General Part'' (CUP 2013).
 
*Heather H Dinniss, ''[https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511894527 Cyber Warfare and the Laws of War]'' (CUP 2012).
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* Olivier Corten, ''[http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781509949021 The Law against War: The Prohibition on the Use of Force in Contemporary International Law]'' (Hart Pub 2021).
*Yoram Dinstein (ed), ''[https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316389591 The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict]'' (CUP 2016).
+
*Emily Crawford, [https://oxford.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199678495.001.0001/acprof-9780199678495 ''Identifying the Enemy: Civilian Participation in Armed Conflict''] (OUP 2015).
*Yoram Dinstein, ''[https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107279391 Non-International Armed Conflicts in International Law]'' (CUP 2014).
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* James Crawford, ''[https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/he/9780198737445.001.0001/he-9780198737445 Brownlie's Principles of Public International Law]'' (OUP 2019).
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* James Crawford, ''[https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/state-responsibility/EE846D9378B83A9DCC5E794FC086B07E State Responsibility: The General Part]'' (CUP 2013).
*Christine Gray, ''International Law and the use of force'' (OUP 2018).
 
*Joanna Kulesza, ''Due Diligence in International Law'' (Brill 2016).
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*Martin Dawidowicz, ''[https://doi.org/10.1017/9781139046602 Third-Party Countermeasures in International Law]'' (CUP 2017).
*Kubo Mačák, ''[http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/oso/9780198819868.001.0001/oso-9780198819868 Internationalized Armed Conflicts in International Law]'' (OUP 2018).
+
* François Delerue, ''[https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108780605 Cyber Operations and International Law]'' (CUP 2020).
*René Provost, ''International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law'' (CUP 2002).
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* Heather H Dinniss, ''[https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511894527 Cyber Warfare and the Laws of War]'' (CUP 2012).
*Marco Roscini, ''Cyber Operations and the Use of Force in International Law'' (OUP 2014).
+
* Yoram Dinstein, ''[https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316389591 The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict]'' (CUP 2016).
*Gary D Solis, ''The Law of Armed Conflict: International Humanitarian Law in War'' (CUP 2016).
+
* Yoram Dinstein, ''[https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107279391 Non-International Armed Conflicts in International Law]'' (CUP 2014).
  +
* Christine Gray, ''[https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law/9780198808411.001.0001/law-9780198808411 International Law and the use of force]'' (OUP 2018).
*Nigel White, ''The Law of International Organizations'' (Juris 2005).
 
  +
* Kristin E. Heckman and others, [https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-319-25133-2 Cyber Denial, Deception and Counter Deception: A Framework for Supporting Active Cyber Defence] (Springer 2015).
*Rudiger Wolfrum (ed), ''Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law'' (OUP 2008).
 
  +
* Vinit Jain and Brad Edgeworth, ''[https://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=2756480&seqNum=6 Troubleshooting BGP: A Practical Guide to Understanding and Troubleshooting BGP]'' (Cisco Press 2017).
*Noam Zamir, ''Classification of Conflicts in International Humanitarian Law: The Legal Impact of Foreign Intervention in Civil Wars'' (Edward Elgar 2017) .
 
  +
*Eleni Katselli Proukaki, ''[https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/oa-mono/10.4324/9780203865569/problem-enforcement-international-law-elena-katselli-proukaki The Problem of Enforcement in International Law]'' (Routledge 2010).
  +
*Natalie Klein, ''[https://oxford.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566532.001.0001/acprof-9780199566532 Maritime Security and the Law of the Sea]'' (OUP 2011).
  +
* Joanna Kulesza, ''[https://brill.com/view/title/26829 Due Diligence in International Law]'' (Brill 2016).
  +
* Kubo Mačák, ''[http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/oso/9780198819868.001.0001/oso-9780198819868 Internationalized Armed Conflicts in International Law]'' (OUP 2018).
  +
* René Provost, ''[https://www.cambridge.org/ch/academic/subjects/law/humanitarian-law/international-human-rights-and-humanitarian-law?format=PB#contentsTabAnchor International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law]'' (CUP 2002).
  +
* Marco Roscini, ''[https://oxford.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199655014.001.0001/acprof-9780199655014 Cyber Operations and the Use of Force in International Law]'' (OUP 2014).
  +
* Gary D Solis, ''[https://www.cambridge.org/ch/academic/subjects/law/humanitarian-law/law-armed-conflict-international-humanitarian-law-war-2nd-edition?format=AR&isbn=9781107135604 The Law of Armed Conflict: International Humanitarian Law in War]'' (CUP 2016).
  +
* Nigel White, ''[https://manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/9780719059544/the-law-of-international-organisations/ The Law of International Organizations]'' (Manchester University Press 2005).
  +
* Noam Zamir, ''[https://www.elgaronline.com/view/9781785367892/9781785367892.xml Classification of Conflicts in International Humanitarian Law: The Legal Impact of Foreign Intervention in Civil Wars]'' (Edward Elgar 2017) .
   
 
== Contributions to edited collections ==
 
== Contributions to edited collections ==
  +
*Kai Ambos, ‘International Criminal Responsibility in Cyberspace’ in Nicholas Tsagourias and Russell Buchan (eds), ''[https://www.e-elgar.com/shop/gbp/research-handbook-on-international-law-and-cyberspace-9781782547389.html Research Handbook on International Law and Cyberspace]'' (Edward Elgar 2015).
* Russell Buchan, ‘[https://ccdcoe.org/sites/default/files/multimedia/pdf/InternationalCyberNorms_Ch4.pdf The International Legal Regulation of State-Sponsored Cyber Espionage]’ (2016) in Anna-Maria Osula and Henry Rõigas (eds) ''International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives'' (NATO CCD COE Publications, Tallinn 2016).
 
*Lindsey Cameron et al, ‘Article 3: Conflicts Not of an International Character’ in ICRC (ed), ''[https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316755709 Commentary on the First Geneva Convention]'' (CUP 2016).
+
*Jeffrey Biller, ‘The Misuse of Protected Indicators in Cyberspace: Defending a Core Aspect of International Humanitarian Law’ in Henry Rõigas and others (eds), ''[https://ccdcoe.org/uploads/2018/10/CyCon_2017_book.pdf Defending the Core]'' (CCD COE 2017).
  +
* Russell Buchan, ‘The International Legal Regulation of State-Sponsored Cyber Espionage’ in Anna-Maria Osula and Henry Rõigas (eds) ''[https://ccdcoe.org/uploads/2018/10/InternationalCyberNorms_full_book.pdf International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives]'' (NATO CCD COE Publications, Tallinn 2016).
 
*Andrew Clapham, ‘Concept of International Armed Conflict’ in Andrew Clapham, Paola Gaeta, and Marco Sassòli (eds), ''[http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law/9780199675449.001.0001/law-9780199675449 The 1949 Geneva Conventions: A Commentary]'' (OUP 2015).
 
*Andrew Clapham, ‘Concept of International Armed Conflict’ in Andrew Clapham, Paola Gaeta, and Marco Sassòli (eds), ''[http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law/9780199675449.001.0001/law-9780199675449 The 1949 Geneva Conventions: A Commentary]'' (OUP 2015).
  +
*Gary P. Corn and Peter P. Pascucci, ‘The Law of Armed Conflict Implications of Covered or Concealed Cyber Operations: Perfidy, Ruses, and the Principle of Passive Distinction’ in Ronald T. P. Alcala and Eric T. Jensen (eds), ''[https://oxford.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.1093/oso/9780190915322.001.0001/oso-9780190915322 The Impact of Emerging Technologies on the Law of Armed Conflict]'' (OUP 2019).
*Jean D’Aspremont, ‘[http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e974 Persona Non Grata]’, in Rudiger Wolfrum (ed), ''Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law'' (OUP 2008).
 
  +
*James Crawford, ‘[http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e1093 State Responsibility]’ in R Wolfrum (ed), ''Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law'' (OUP 2008).
*Oliver Dörr and Albrecgr Randelzhofer, ‘Article 2(4)’ in Bruno Simma et al (eds), ''The Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary'' (OUP 2012).
 
  +
*Jean D’Aspremont, ‘[http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e974 Persona Non Grata]’ in Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed), ''Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law'' (OUP 2008).
*Frederic Dopagne, ‘Sanctions and Countermeasures by International Organizations’, in Richard Collins and Nigel White (eds) ''International Organizations and the Idea of Autonomy'' (Routledge 2011).
 
  +
*Christian Dominicé, ‘Attribution of Conduct to Multiple States and the Implication of a State in the Act of Another State’ in James Crawford and others (eds), ''[https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law/9780199296972.001.0001/law-9780199296972 The Law of International Responsibility]'' (OUP 2010).
*Tristan Ferraro and Lindsey Cameron, ‘Article 2: Application of the Convention’, in ICRC (ed), ''[https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316755709 Commentary on the First Geneva Convention]'' (CUP 2016).
 
  +
*Frederic Dopagne, ‘Sanctions and Countermeasures by International Organizations’ in Richard Collins and Nigel White (eds) ''[https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/edit/10.4324/9780203828090/international-organizations-idea-autonomy-richard-collins-nigel-white International Organizations and the Idea of Autonomy]'' (Routledge 2011).
*Robin Geiss and Henning Lahmann, ‘Freedom and Security in Cyberspace: Shifting the Focus Away from Military Responses Towards Non-Forcible Countermeasures and Collective Threat-Prevention’ in Katharina Ziolkowski (ed), ''Peacetime Regime for State Activities in Cyberspace'' (NATO CCD COE 2013).
 
*Jan K Kleffner, ‘Scope of Application of Humanitarian Law’ in Dieter Fleck (ed), ''[http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law/9780199658800.001.0001/law-9780199658800 The Handbook of International Humanitarian Law]'' (3rd edn, OUP 2013).
+
*Hans-Peter Gasser and Knut Dörmann, ‘Protection of Civilian Population’ in Dieter Fleck (ed), ''[http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law/9780199658800.001.0001/law-9780199658800 The Handbook of International Humanitarian Law]'' (3rd edn, OUP 2013).
  +
*Robin Geiss, ‘The Obligation to Respect and to Ensure Respect for the Conventions’ in Andrew Clapham, Paola Gaeta and Marco Sassòli (eds), ''[https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law/9780199675449.001.0001/law-9780199675449 The 1949 Geneva Conventions: A Commentary]'' (OUP 2015).
*Franck Latty, ‘Actions and Omissions’ in James Crawford et al (eds), ''The Law of International Responsibility'' (OUP 2010).
 
  +
*Robin Geiss and Henning Lahmann, ‘Freedom and Security in Cyberspace: Shifting the Focus Away from Military Responses Towards Non-Forcible Countermeasures and Collective Threat-Prevention’ in Katharina Ziolkowski (ed), ''[https://www.ilsa.org/Jessup/Jessup16/Batch%202/Peacetime-Regime.pdf Peacetime Regime for State Activities in Cyberspace]'' (NATO CCD COE 2013).
*Georg Nolte and Albrecht Randelzhofer, ‘Article 51’ in Bruno Simma et al (eds), ''The Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary'' (OUP 2012).
 
  +
*Terry D. Gill, ‘Non-intervention in the Cyber Context’ in Katharina Ziolkowski (ed), ''[https://www.ilsa.org/Jessup/Jessup16/Batch%202/Peacetime-Regime.pdf Peacetime Regime for State Activities in Cyberspace]'' (NATO CCD COE 2013).
*Anne Peters, ‘Article 25’ in Bruno Simma et al (eds), ''[http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law/9780199639762.001.0001/law-9780199639762 The Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary]'' (3rd edn, OUP 2012).
 
  +
*Douglas Guilfoyle, ‘The High Seas’ (2015) in Donald Rothwell, Alex Oude Elfernik, Karen Scott and Tim Stephens (eds), ''[https://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/law/9780198715481.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780198715481 The Oxford Handbook of the Law of the Sea]'' (OUP 2015).
*Rudiger Wolfrum, ‘Obligation of Result Versus Obligation of Conduct: Some Thoughts About the Implementation of International Obligations’ in Mahnoush H Arsanjani et al, ''Looking to the Future: Essays on International Law in Honor of Michael Reisman'' (Brill 2010).
 
*Silja Vöneky, ‘Analogy in International Law’, in Rudiger Wolfrum (ed), ''Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law'' (OUP 2008).
+
*Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg, ‘[https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e443 Warships]’ in Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed), ''Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law'' (OUP 2008, updated October 2015)
  +
*Albert J. Hoffmann, ‘[https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e1199 Freedom of Navigation]’ in Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed), ''Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law'' (OUP 2008, updated April 2011).
  +
*Knut Ipsen, ‘Combatants and Non-Combatants’ in Dieter Fleck (ed), <i>[http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law/9780199658800.001.0001/law-9780199658800 The Handbook of International Humanitarian Law]</i> (3rd edn, OUP 2013).
  +
*Jan K. Kleffner, ‘Scope of Application of Humanitarian Law’ in Dieter Fleck (ed), ''[http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law/9780199658800.001.0001/law-9780199658800 The Handbook of International Humanitarian Law]'' (3rd edn, OUP 2013).
  +
*Marcelo Kohen, ‘The Court’s Contribution to Determining the Content of Fundamental Principles of International Law’ in Giorgio Gaja and Jenny Grote Stoutenburg (eds), ''[https://brill.com/view/title/25461 Enhancing the Rule of Law through the International Court of Justice]'' (Brill 2012).
  +
*Jeff Kosseff, ‘Retorsion as a Response to Ongoing Cyber Operations’ in Taťána Jančárková and others (eds), ''[https://ccdcoe.org/uploads/2020/05/CyCon_2020_book.pdf 20/20 Vision: The Next Decade]'' (NATO CCD COE 2020).
  +
*Natalie Klein, ‘Maritime Security’ in Donald Rothwell, Alex Oude Elfernik, Karen Scott and Tim Stephens (eds), ''[https://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/law/9780198715481.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780198715481 The Oxford Handbook of the Law of the Sea]'' (OUP 2015).
  +
*Doris König, ‘[https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e1166 Flag of Ships]’ in Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed), ''Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law'' (OUP 2008, updated April 2009).
  +
*Philip Kunig, ‘[https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e1434 Prohibition of Intervention]’, in Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed), ''Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law'' (OUP 2008, updated April 2008).
  +
*Franck Latty, ‘Actions and Omissions’ in James Crawford and others (eds), ''[https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law/9780199296972.001.0001/law-9780199296972 The Law of International Responsibility]'' (OUP 2010).
  +
*Nils Melzer, ‘Cyber Operations and ''jus in bello''’ in Kerstin Vignard (ed), <i>[https://www.unidir.org/files/publications/pdfs/confronting-cyberconflict-en-317.pdf Confronting Cyberconflict]</i> (UNIDIR 2011).
  +
*Jody Prescott, ‘Direct Participation in Cyber Hostilities: Terms of Reference for Like-Minded States?’ in Christian Czosseck, Rain Ottis and Katharina Ziolkowski (eds), <i>[https://ccdcoe.org/uploads/2019/03/CyCon_book_2012.pdf 4th International Conference on Cyber Conflict]</i> (NATO CCD COE 2012).
  +
*Przemysław Roguski, ‘Collective Countermeasures in Cyberspace: ''Lex lata,'' Progressive Development or a Bad Idea?’ in Taťána Jančárková and others (eds), ''[https://ccdcoe.org/uploads/2020/05/CyCon_2020_book.pdf 20/20 Vision: The Next Decade]'' (NATO CCD COE 2020).
  +
*Michael N Schmitt, ‘The Use of Cyber Force and International Law’ in Marc Weller (ed), ''[https://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/law/9780199673049.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780199673049 Oxford Handbook on the Use of Force in International Law]'' (OUP 2015).
  +
*Tassilo Singer, ‘Update to Revolving Door 2.0 – the Extension of the Period for Direct Participation in Hostilities Due to Autonomous Cyber Weapons’ in Henry Rõigas and others (eds), <i>[https://ccdcoe.org/uploads/2018/10/CyCon_2017_book.pdf 9th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Defending the Core]</i>(NATO CCD COE 2017).
  +
*Yoshifumi Tanaka, ‘Navigational Rights and Freedoms’ in Donald Rothwell, Alex Oude Elfernik, Karen Scott and Tim Stephens (eds), ''[https://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/law/9780198715481.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780198715481 The Oxford Handbook of the Law of the Sea]'' (OUP 2015).
  +
*Wibke Timmermann and William A. Schabas, ‘Incitement to Genocide’ in Paul Behrens and Ralph Henham (eds), ''[https://www.routledge.com/Elements-of-Genocide/Behrens-Henham/p/book/9781138784710 Elements of Genocide]'' (Routledge 2013).
  +
* Sabine Von Schorlemer, ‘[https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e998 Telecommunications, international regulation]’ in Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed), ''Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law'' (OUP 2008, updated March 2009)
  +
*Silja Vöneky, ‘[http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e1375 Analogy in International Law]’ in Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed), ''Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law'' (OUP 2008).
  +
*Sean Watts, ‘[https://ccdcoe.org/uploads/2012/01/4_2_Watts_TheNotionOfCombatancyInCyberWarfare.pdf The Notion of Combatancy in Cyber Warfare]’, in Christian Czosseck, Rain Ottis and Katharina Ziolkowski (eds), <i>4th International Conference on Cyber Conflict</i> (NATO CCD COE 2012).
  +
* Rolf Weber, ‘A Legal Lens into Internet Governance’, in Laura DeNardis and others (eds), <i>[https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/researching-internet-governance Researching Internet Governance: Methods, Frameworks, Futures]</i> (MIT Press 2020).
  +
*Rüdiger Wolfrum, ‘Obligation of Result Versus Obligation of Conduct: Some Thoughts About the Implementation of International Obligations’ in Mahnoush H Arsanjani and others, ''[https://brill.com/view/title/15834 Looking to the Future: Essays on International Law in Honor of Michael Reisman]'' (Brill 2010).
  +
*Katja Ziegler, ‘[http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e1398 Domaine Réservé]’, in Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed), ''Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law'' (OUP 2008, updated April 2013).
   
 
== Edited books and reference texts ==
 
== Edited books and reference texts ==
* Michael N Schmitt (ed), ''[https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316822524 Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations]'' (CUP 2017).
+
*Michael Bothe and others (eds), ''[https://brill.com/view/title/60615?rskey=FxN9kR&result=1 New Rules for Victims of Armed Conflicts]'' (Brill 2013).
  +
*Andrew Clapham, Paola Gaeta, and Marco Sassòli (eds), ''[http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law/9780199675449.001.0001/law-9780199675449 The 1949 Geneva Conventions: A Commentary]'' (OUP 2015).
  +
*Geoffrey S. Corn, Rachel E. VanLandingham and Shane R. Reeves (eds), ''[https://oxford.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199328574.001.0001/acprof-9780199328574 U.S. Military Operations: Law, Policy, and Practice]'' (OUP 2015).
  +
*Gloria Gaggioli (ed), ''[https://www.icrc.org/en/doc/assets/files/publications/icrc-002-4171.pdf The Use of Force in Armed Conflicts]'' (ICRC 2013).
  +
*Fan O Hampson and Michael Sulmeyer (eds), ''[https://www.cigionline.org/sites/default/files/documents/Getting%20Beyond%20Norms.pdf Getting Beyond Norms]'' (CIGI 2017).
  +
*ICRC (ed), ''[https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316755709 Commentary on the First Geneva Convention]'' (CUP 2016).
  +
*Yves Sandoz, Christophe Swinarski, and Bruno Zimmermann (eds), ''[https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/vwTreaties1949.xsp Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949]'' (ICRC 1987).
  +
*Michael N Schmitt (ed), ''[https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316822524 Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations]'' (CUP 2017).
  +
*Bruno Simma and others (eds), ''The Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary'' (OUP 2012): [https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law/9780199639762.001.0001/law-9780199639762 volume 1] and [https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law/9780199639779.001.0001/law-9780199639779 volume 2].
  +
*Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed), ''[http://opil.ouplaw.com/home/EPIL Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law]'' (OUP 2008).
   
 
== Journal articles ==
 
== Journal articles ==
  +
* James Banks, ‘[https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2129457 European Regulation of Cross-Border Hate Speech in Cyberspace: The Limits of Legislation]’ (2011) 19 Eur J Crime CrL & CrJ 1.
  +
* William Banks, ‘[https://texaslawreview.org/state-responsibility-attribution-cyber-intrusions-tallinn-2-0/ State Responsibility and Attribution of Cyber Intrusions After Tallinn 2.0]’ (2017) 95 Tex. L. Rev. 1487.
 
* Steven Bellovin, Susan Landau and Herbert Lin, ‘[https://academic.oup.com/cybersecurity/article/3/1/59/3097802 Limiting the Undesired Impact of Cyber Weapons: Technical Requirements and Policy Implications]’ (2017) 3(1) Journal of Cybersecurity 59.
 
* Steven Bellovin, Susan Landau and Herbert Lin, ‘[https://academic.oup.com/cybersecurity/article/3/1/59/3097802 Limiting the Undesired Impact of Cyber Weapons: Technical Requirements and Policy Implications]’ (2017) 3(1) Journal of Cybersecurity 59.
  +
* Jeffrey T Biller and Michael N Schmitt, ‘[https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2462&context=ils Classification of Cyber Capabilities and Operations as Weapons, Means, or Methods of Warfare]’ (2019) 95 Int’l L Stud 179.
*Duncan Blake and Joseph Imburgia, ‘“[https://ssrn.com/abstract=1850831 Bloodless Weapons”? The Need to Conduct Legal Review of Certain Capabilities and the Implications of Defining Them as “Weapons]”’, (2010) 66 Air Force Law Review 157.
 
  +
* Duncan Blake and Joseph Imburgia, ‘“[https://ssrn.com/abstract=1850831 Bloodless Weapons”? The Need to Conduct Legal Review of Certain Capabilities and the Implications of Defining Them as “Weapons]”’, (2010) 66 Air Force Law Review 157.
*Vincent Boulanin and Maaike Verbruggen, ''[https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/2017-12/article_36_report_1712.pdf Article 36 Reviews: Dealing with the Challenges Posed by Emerging Technologies]'' [2017] SIPRI.
 
*Mark Bromley, [https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/2018-01/sipri1712_bromley.pdf Export Controls, Human Security and Cyber-Surveillance Technology: Examining the Proposed Changes to the EU Dual-use Regulation] [2017] SIPRI.
+
* Vincent Boulanin and Maaike Verbruggen, ''[https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/2017-12/article_36_report_1712.pdf Article 36 Reviews: Dealing with the Challenges Posed by Emerging Technologies]'' (2017) SIPRI.
  +
*Mark Bromley, ‘[https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/2018-01/sipri1712_bromley.pdf Export Controls, Human Security and Cyber-Surveillance Technology: Examining the Proposed Changes to the EU Dual-use Regulation]’ (2017) SIPRI.
*Gary Brown and Andrew Metcalf, ‘[http://jnslp.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Easier-Said-than-Done.pdf Easier Said Than Done: Legal Reviews of Cyber Weapons]’ (2014) 7 Journal of National Security Law & Policy 115.
 
  +
*Gary Brown and Andrew Metcalf, ‘[http://jnslp.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Easier-Said-than-Done.pdf Easier Said Than Done: Legal Reviews of Cyber Weapons]’ (2014) 7 Journal of National Security Law and Policy 115.
*Gary Brown and Keira Poellet, ''‘''The Customary International Law of Cyberspace’ [2012] Strategic Studies Quarterly 137.
 
  +
*Gary Brown and Keira Poellet, ''‘''The Customary International Law of Cyberspace’ (2012) Strategic Studies Quarterly 137.
  +
* Russell Buchan, ‘[https://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/103386/11/Buchan%20FINAL%20Cyberspace.pdf Cyberspace, Non-State Actors and the Obligation to Prevent Transboundary Harm]’ (2016) 21(3) JCSL 429.
  +
* Russell Buchan, ‘[https://academic.oup.com/chinesejil/article-abstract/15/4/741/2765117?redirectedFrom=fulltext Cyber Warfare and the Status of Anonymous under International Humanitarian Law]’ (2016) Chinese JIL 741.
  +
*Russell Buchan, ‘[https://www.jstor.org/stable/26296227 Cyber Attacks: Unlawful Uses of Force or Prohibited Interventions?]’ (2012) 17 JCSL 212.
  +
*Elena Chachko, ‘[https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3157255 Foreign Affairs in Court: Lessons from CJEU Targeted Sanctions Jurisprudence’] (2019) 44 Yale Journal of International Law 1.
 
*Luke Chircop, ‘[https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020589318000015 A Due Diligence Standard of Attribution in Cyberspace]’ (2018) 67 ICLQ 643.
 
*Luke Chircop, ‘[https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020589318000015 A Due Diligence Standard of Attribution in Cyberspace]’ (2018) 67 ICLQ 643.
 
*Gary P. Corn and Robert Taylor, ‘[https://doi.org/10.1017/aju.2017.57 Sovereignty in the Age of Cyber]’ (2017) 111 AJIL Unbound 207.
 
*Gary P. Corn and Robert Taylor, ‘[https://doi.org/10.1017/aju.2017.57 Sovereignty in the Age of Cyber]’ (2017) 111 AJIL Unbound 207.
  +
*Gary P. Corn and Eric T. Jensen, ‘[https://sites.temple.edu/ticlj/files/2020/02/32.2_Corn_Article02-header-deleted.pdf The Use of Force and Cyber Countermeasures]’ (2018) 32 Temple International and Comparative Law Journal 127.
*Ashley Deeks, 'An International Legal Framework for Surveillance' (2015) 55 VA.J.INT’LL. 291.
 
  +
*Martin Dawidowicz, ‘[http://www.qil-qdi.org/third-party-countermeasures-progressive-development-international-law/ Third-Party Countermeasures: A Progressive Development of International Law?]’ (2016) 29 Questions of International Law 3.
*Heather H Dinniss, ‘[https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/israel48&i=41 The Nature of Objects: Targeting Networks and the Challenge of Defining Cyber Military Objectives]’ (2015) 48 IsrLR 39.
 
  +
*Ashley Deeks, ‘[https://www.ilsa.org/Jessup/Jessup16/Batch%202/DeeksLegalFramework.pdf An International Legal Framework for Surveillance]’ (2015) 55 Virginia J Int'l L 291.
  +
*Heather H Dinniss, ‘[https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/israel48&i=41 The Nature of Objects: Targeting Networks and the Challenge of Defining Cyber Military Objectives]’ (2015) 48 Isr L Rev 39.
 
*Cordula Droege, ‘[https://www.icrc.org/en/download/file/13738/irrc-886-droege.pdf Get Off My Cloud: Cyber Warfare, International Humanitarian Law, and the Protection of Civilians]’ (2012) 94 IRRC 533.
 
*Cordula Droege, ‘[https://www.icrc.org/en/download/file/13738/irrc-886-droege.pdf Get Off My Cloud: Cyber Warfare, International Humanitarian Law, and the Protection of Civilians]’ (2012) 94 IRRC 533.
*Dan Efrony and Yuval Shany, '[https://doi.org/10.1017/ajil.2018.86 A Rule Book on the Shelf? Tallinn Manual 2.0 on Cyberoperations and Subsequent State Practice]' (2018) 112 AJIL.
+
*Dan Efrony and Yuval Shany, '[https://doi.org/10.1017/ajil.2018.86 A Rule Book on the Shelf? Tallinn Manual 2.0 on Cyberoperations and Subsequent State Practice]' (2018) 112 AJIL 583.
 
*David Fidler, ‘[https://www.asil.org/insights/volume/17/issue/10/economic-cyber-espionage-and-international-law-controversies-involving Economic Cyber Espionage and International Law: Controversies Involving Government Acquisition of Trade Secrets through Cyber Technologies]’ (2013) 17/10 ASIL Insights.
 
*David Fidler, ‘[https://www.asil.org/insights/volume/17/issue/10/economic-cyber-espionage-and-international-law-controversies-involving Economic Cyber Espionage and International Law: Controversies Involving Government Acquisition of Trade Secrets through Cyber Technologies]’ (2013) 17/10 ASIL Insights.
*Jack Goldsmith, ‘''[http://www.ejil.org/pdfs/24/1/2374.pdf How Cyber Changes the Laws of War]''’ (2013) 24 EJIL 129.
+
*Andrey Fino, ‘[https://academic.oup.com/jicj/article/18/1/31/5858150 Defining Hate Speech A Seemingly Elusive Task]’ (2020) 18 JICL 31.
  +
*Carlo Focarelli, ‘[http://www.qil-qdi.org/international-law-third-party-countermeasures-age-global-instant-communication/ International Law and Third-Party Countermeasures in the Age of Global Instant Communication]’ (2016) 29 Questions of International Law 17.
  +
*Shannon Fyfe, ‘[https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/leiden-journal-of-international-law/article/abs/tracking-hate-speech-acts-as-incitement-to-genocide-in-international-criminal-law/671620A70B629DDE9C37E774CDEBAC65 Tracking Hate Speech Acts as Incitement to Genocide in International Criminal Law]’ (2017) 30 LJIL 523.
  +
*Laurent Gisel, Tilman Rodenhäuser, and Knut Dörmann, ‘[https://doi.org/10.1017/S1816383120000387 Twenty Years On: International Humanitarian Law and the Protection of Civilians Against the Effects of Cyber Operations During Armed Conflicts]’ (2020) 102 (913) IRRC 334.
  +
*Jack Goldsmith, ‘[http://www.ejil.org/pdfs/24/1/2374.pdf How Cyber Changes the Laws of War]’ (2013) 24 EJIL 129.
  +
*Gregory S Gordon, ‘[https://scholarship.law.vanderbilt.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1251&context=vjtl Hate Speech and Persecution: A Contextual Approach]’ (2013) 46 VandJTransnatlL 303.
  +
*Gregory S Gordon, ‘[https://lawecommons.luc.edu/luclj/vol43/iss2/3/ Formulating a New Atrocity Speech Offense: Incitement to Commit War Crimes]’ (2012) 43 LoyUChiLJ 281.
 
*James Green, ‘[https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020589308000833 Fluctuating Evidentiary Standards for Self-Defence in the International Court of Justice]’ (2009) 58 ICLQ 163.
 
*James Green, ‘[https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020589308000833 Fluctuating Evidentiary Standards for Self-Defence in the International Court of Justice]’ (2009) 58 ICLQ 163.
  +
*Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg, '[https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.ee/&httpsredir=1&article=1027&context=ils Territorial Sovereignty and Neutrality in Cyberspace]' (2013) 89 Int’l L Stud 123.
*Erika Häger and Carolina Dackö, ‘[https://www.mannheimerswartling.se/globalassets/nyhetsbrev/msa_nyhetsbrev_economic_espionage_dec17_a4_final.pdf Economic Espionage: A Report by Mannheimer Swartling]’ (2018).
 
  +
*Harold Hongju Koh, ‘[https://harvardilj.org/2012/12/online_54_koh/ International Law in Cyberspace: Remarks as Prepared for Delivery to the USCYBERCOM Inter-Agency Legal Conference]’ (18 September 2002), reprinted in (2012) 54 Harv. Int’l L.J. Online 1, 4.
*Fan O Hampson and Michael Sulmeyer (eds), ''Getting Beyond Norms'' [2017] CIGI .
 
  +
*Maziar Jamnejad and Michael Wood, ‘[https://journals.scholarsportal.info/details?uri=/09221565/v22i0002/345_tpon The Principle of Non-Intervention]’ (2009) 22 LJIL 345.
*Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg, '[https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.ee/&httpsredir=1&article=1027&context=ils Territorial Sovereignty and Neutrality in Cyberspace]' (2013) 89 Int’l L. Stud. 123.
 
*Catherine Lotrionte, ‘[https://scholarship.law.unc.edu/ncilj/vol40/iss2/4/ Countering State-Sponsored Cyber Economic Espionage Under International Law]’ (2015) 40 N.C. J. INT'L L. & COM. REG. 443.
+
* Ido Kilovaty, ‘[https://scholarship.law.nd.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1116&context=ndjicl An extra-territorial human right to cybersecurity]’ (2020) 10 Notre Dame Journal of International and Comparative Law 35.
  +
*Jeff Kosseff, ‘[https://scholarship.law.nd.edu/ndjicl/vol10/iss1/4/ Collective Countermeasures in Cyberspace]’ (2020) 10 Notre Dame Journal of International and Comparative Law 1.
*Noam Lubell, ‘Lawful Targets in Cyber Operations: Does the Principle of Distinction Apply?’ (2013) 89 Int’l L Studies 252.
 
  +
*David Kretzmer, ‘[http://www.ejil.org/pdfs/24/1/2380.pdf The Inherent Right to Self-Defence and Proportionality in ''Jus Ad Bellum'']’ (2013) 24 EJIL 235.
*Kubo Mačák, ‘Decoding Article 8 of the International Law Commission’s Articles on State Responsibility: Attribution of Cyber Operations by Non-State Actors’ (2016) 21 JCSL 405.
 
  +
*Patricia Kwast, ‘[https://academic.oup.com/jcsl/article-abstract/13/1/49/824799 Maritime Law Enforcement and the Use of Force: Reflections on the Categorisation of Forcible Action at Sea in the Light of the ''Guyana/Suriname'' Award]’ (2008) 13 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 1.
*Kubo Mačák, ‘From Cyber Norms to Cyber Rules: Re-engaging States as Law-makers’ (2017) 30 LJIL 877.
 
  +
*Catherine Lotrionte, ‘[https://scholarship.law.unc.edu/ncilj/vol40/iss2/4/ Countering State-Sponsored Cyber Economic Espionage Under International Law]’ (2015) 40 NCJ Int'l L & Com Reg 443.
  +
*Noam Lubell, ‘[https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1026&context=ils Lawful Targets in Cyber Operations: Does the Principle of Distinction Apply?]’ (2013) 89 Int’l L Stud 252.
  +
*Kubo Mačák, ‘[https://doi.org/10.1093/jcsl/krw014 Decoding Article 8 of the International Law Commission’s Articles on State Responsibility: Attribution of Cyber Operations by Non-State Actors]’ (2016) 21 JCSL 405.
  +
*Kubo Mačák, ‘[https://doi.org/10.1080/23738871.2021.2014919 Unblurring the lines: military cyber operations and international law]’ (2021) 6(3) Journal of Cyber Policy 411.
  +
*Kubo Mačák, ‘[https://doi.org/10.1017/S0922156517000358 From Cyber Norms to Cyber Rules: Re-engaging States as Law-makers]’ (2017) 30 LJIL 877.
 
*Kubo Mačák, ‘[https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021223714000260 Military Objectives 2.0: The Case for Interpreting Computer Data as Objects under International Humanitarian Law]’ (2015) 48 Isr L Rev 55.
 
*Kubo Mačák, ‘[https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021223714000260 Military Objectives 2.0: The Case for Interpreting Computer Data as Objects under International Humanitarian Law]’ (2015) 48 Isr L Rev 55.
  +
*Massimo Marelli, ‘[https://international-review.icrc.org/sites/default/files/reviews-pdf/2021-03/hacking-humanitarians-cyber-security-strategy-international-humanitarian-organizations-913.pdf Hacking humanitarians: Defining the cyber perimeter and developing a cyber security strategy for international humanitarian organizations in digital transformation]’ (2020) 102 (913) IRRC 367.
*
 
*Peter Margulies, '[https://law.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/1687488/05Margulies-Depaginated.pdf Sovereignty and Cyber Attacks: Technology's Challenge to the Law of State Responsibility]' (2013) 14 MJIL.
+
* Peter Margulies, [https://scholarship.law.ufl.edu/flr/vol68/iss4/3/ Surveillance by Algorithm: The NSA, Computerized Intelligence Collection and Human Rights] (2016) 68 Fla. L. Rev. 1084.
  +
* Peter Margulies, '[https://law.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/1687488/05Margulies-Depaginated.pdf Sovereignty and Cyber Attacks: Technology's Challenge to the Law of State Responsibility]' (2013) 14 MJIL.
*Marko Milanovic, ‘[http://www.harvardilj.org/wp-content/uploads/561Milanovic.pdf Human Rights Treaties and Foreign Surveillance: Privacy in the Digital Age]’ (2015) 56/1 HarvIntlLJ.
 
*Noam Neuman, ‘Challenges in the Interpretation and Application of the Principle of Distinction During Ground Operations in Urban Areas’ (2018) 51 VJTL 807.
+
*John Merriam, ‘[https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2597065 Affirmative Target Identification, Operationalizing the Principle of Distinction for U.S. Warfighters]’ (2015) 56 Virginia JIL 83.
  +
*Tomohiro Mikanagi and Kubo Mačák, ‘[https://www.elgaronline.com/view/journals/cilj/9-1/cilj.2020.01.03.xml Attribution of Cyber Operations: An International Law Perspective on the Park Jin Hyok case]’ (2020) 9 Cambridge Int’l L, J. 51.
  +
*Marko Milanovic and Michael N Schmitt, ‘[https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3612019 Cyber Attacks and Cyber (Mis)information Operations during a Pandemic]’, (2020) 11 Journal of National Security Law & Policy 247.
  +
*Marko Milanovic, ‘[http://www.harvardilj.org/wp-content/uploads/561Milanovic.pdf Human Rights Treaties and Foreign Surveillance: Privacy in the Digital Age]’ (2015) 56/1 Harv Int'l LJ.
  +
*Harriet Moynihan, ‘[https://doi.org/10.1080/23738871.2020.1832550 The Vital Role of International Law in the Framework for Responsible State Behaviour in Cyberspace]’ (2020) 5 Journal of Cyber Policy.
  +
*Noam Neuman, ‘[https://scholarship.law.vanderbilt.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1099&context=vjtl Challenges in the Interpretation and Application of the Principle of Distinction During Ground Operations in Urban Areas]’ (2018) 51 VJTL 807.
  +
*Christian Payne and Lorraine Finlay, ‘[https://gwilr.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/ILR-Vol-49.3_Panye-Finlay.pdf Addressing Obstacles to Cyber-Attribution]’, (2017) 49 Geo. Wash. Int’l L. Rev. 535.
  +
*Sean K Price, ‘[https://harvardnsj.org/2020/02/perfidy-in-cyberspace-the-requirement-for-human-confidence/ Perfidy in Cyberspace: The Requirement for Human Confidence]’ (2020) Harv. Nat'l Sec. J. Online.
 
*Darien Pun, ‘[https://doi.org/10.1093/jcsl/krw014 Rethinking Espionage in the Modern Era]’ (2017) 18 Chicago JIL 353.
 
*Darien Pun, ‘[https://doi.org/10.1093/jcsl/krw014 Rethinking Espionage in the Modern Era]’ (2017) 18 Chicago JIL 353.
  +
*Marco Roscini, ‘[https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3435439 Gravity in the Statute of the International Criminal Court and Cyber Conduct that Constitutes, Instigates or Facilitates International Crimes]’ (2019) 30 CrimLF 247.
*Dietrich Schindler, ‘The Different Types of Armed Conflicts According to the Geneva Conventions and Protocols’ (1979) 163 RdC 117.
 
*Michael N. Schmitt, ‘[https://puc.overheid.nl/mrt/doc/PUC_248137_11/ International Cyber Norms: Reflections on the Path Ahead]’ (2018) 111 Netherlands’ Military Law Review 12.
+
*Marco Roscini, ‘[https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2611753 Evidentiary Issues in International Disputes Related to State Responsibility for Cyber Operations]’ (2015) 50 Texas International Law Journal 1.
  +
*Barrie Sander, ‘[https://doi.org/10.1093/chinesejil/jmz003 Democracy Under The Influence: Paradigms of State Responsibility for Cyber Influence Operations on Elections]’ (2019) 18 Chinese JIL 1.
*Michael N Schmitt, ‘[https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/israel48&i=83 The Notion of ‘Objects’ during Cyber Operations: A Riposte in Defence of Interpretive and Applicative Precision]’ (2015) 48 IsrLR 81.
 
  +
*Dietrich Schindler, ‘[https://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/the-hague-academy-collected-courses/*A9789028609303_03?lang=en The Different Types of Armed Conflicts According to the Geneva Conventions and Protocols]’ (1979) 163 RdC 117.
*Michael N Schmitt, '[https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/cjil19&i=36 Virtual Disenfranchisement: Cyber Election Meddling in the Grey Zones of International Law]' (2018) 19 ChiJIntlL 30.
 
*Michael N Schmitt and Jeffrey Biller, ‘[https://www.ejiltalk.org/the-notpetya-cyber-operation-as-a-case-study-of-international-law/ The NotPetya Cyber Operation as a Case Study of International Law]’, ''EJIL: Talk!'', 11 July 2017.
+
*Michael N Schmitt, ‘[https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/pdfs/ADA471993.pdf Computer Network Attack and Use of Force in International Law: Thoughts on a Normative Framework]’ (1999) 37 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 885.
*Michael N. Schmitt and Sean Watts, ‘[https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/tilj50&i=217 The Decline of International Humanitarian Law ''Opinio Juris'' and the Law of Cyber Warfare]’ (2015) 50 TexIntlLJ 189.
+
*Michael N Schmitt, ‘[https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1600243 The Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities: A Critical Analysis]’ (2010) 1 Harvard National Security Journal 5.
  +
*Michael N Schmitt, ‘[https://centaur.reading.ac.uk/89821/1/SSRN-id2353898.pdf Below the Threshold Cyber Operations: The Countermeasures Response Option and International Law]’ (2014) 54 Virginia Journal of International Law 697.
  +
*Michael N Schmitt, ‘[https://puc.overheid.nl/mrt/doc/PUC_248137_11/ International Cyber Norms: Reflections on the Path Ahead]’ (2018) 111 Netherlands Military Law Review 12.
  +
*Michael N Schmitt, ‘[https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/israel48&i=83 The Notion of ‘Objects’ during Cyber Operations: A Riposte in Defence of Interpretive and Applicative Precision]’ (2015) 48 Isr L Rev 81.
  +
*Michael N Schmitt, '[https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/cjil19&i=36 Virtual Disenfranchisement: Cyber Election Meddling in the Grey Zones of International Law]' (2018) 19 Chinese JIL 30.
  +
*Michael N. Schmitt and Sean Watts, ‘[https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/tilj50&i=217 The Decline of International Humanitarian Law ''Opinio Juris'' and the Law of Cyber Warfare]’ (2015) 50 Tex Int'l LJ 189.
 
*Michael N Schmitt and Liis Vihul, ‘[https://texaslawreview.org/respect-sovereignty-cyberspace/ Respect for Sovereignty in Cyberspace]’ (2017) 95 Tex L Rev. 1639.
 
*Michael N Schmitt and Liis Vihul, ‘[https://texaslawreview.org/respect-sovereignty-cyberspace/ Respect for Sovereignty in Cyberspace]’ (2017) 95 Tex L Rev. 1639.
  +
*Eric Talbot Jensen and Sean Watts, ‘[https://texaslawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Jensen.Watts_..pdf A Cyber Duty of Due Diligence: Gentle Civilizer or Crude Destabilizer]’ (2017) 95 Tex. L. Rev. 1555.
*Nicholas Tsagourias ''<nowiki>''</nowiki>''[https://doi.org/10.1093/jcsl/krs019 Cyber Attacks, Self-Defence and the Problem of Attribution]' (2012) 17 (2) Journal of Conflict and Security Law 23.
 
  +
*Wibke K Timmermann, ‘[https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/leiden-journal-of-international-law/article/abs/relationship-between-hate-propaganda-and-incitement-to-genocide-a-new-trend-in-international-law-towards-criminalization-of-hate-propaganda/D658B2F64EC10371D96407154FDE5ED2 The Relationship between Hate Propaganda and Incitement to Genocide: A New Trend in International Law Towards Criminalization of Hate Propaganda?]’ (2005) 18 LJIL 257.
  +
*Nicholas Tsagourias ''<nowiki/>'''[https://doi.org/10.1093/jcsl/krs019 Cyber Attacks, Self-Defence and the Problem of Attribution]' (2012) 17 (2) JCSL 23.
  +
* Beth Van Schaack, ‘[https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1011&context=ils The United States' position on the extra-territorial application of human rights obligations: Now is the time for change]’ (2014) 90 Int’l L Stud 20.
 
*David Wallace, ‘[https://ccdcoe.org/sites/default/files/multimedia/pdf/TP&#x20;11_2018.pdf Cyber Weapon Reviews under International Humanitarian Law: A Critical Analysis]’ (2018) Tallinn Paper No. 11.
 
*David Wallace, ‘[https://ccdcoe.org/sites/default/files/multimedia/pdf/TP&#x20;11_2018.pdf Cyber Weapon Reviews under International Humanitarian Law: A Critical Analysis]’ (2018) Tallinn Paper No. 11.
  +
* Beatrice A. Walton, ‘[https://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5798&context=ylj Duties Owed: Low-Intensity Cyber Attacks and Liability for Transboundary Torts in International Law]’ (2017) 126 YaleLJ 1460.
*Sean Watts and Theodore Richard, '[https://law.lclark.edu/live/files/26902-lcb223article3wattspdf Baseline Territorial Sovereignty and Cyberspace]' (2018) 22 Lewis & Clark L. Rev. 771. <br />
 
  +
*Sean Watts and Theodore Richard, '[https://law.lclark.edu/live/files/26902-lcb223article3wattspdf Baseline Territorial Sovereignty and Cyberspace]' (2018) 22 Lewis & Clark L Rev. 771.
  +
*Richard A Wilson, ‘[https://repository.law.umich.edu/mjil/vol36/iss2/2/ Inciting Genocide with Words]’ (2015) 36 MichJIntlL 277.
   
== International reports and other public documents ==
+
== International treaties, resolutions and other legislative documents ==
  +
* [https://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/27-trips_01_e.htm Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Annex 1C to the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization] (signed on 15 April 1994 in Marrakesh), 1869 UNTS 299
 
*[https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316577226.029 American Convention on Human Rights] (open for signature from 22 November 1969, entered into force 18 July 1978), 1144 UNTS 123.
 
*[https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316577226.029 American Convention on Human Rights] (open for signature from 22 November 1969, entered into force 18 July 1978), 1144 UNTS 123.
*[https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:12012P/TXT Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union], proclaimed on 7 December 2000.
+
*[https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:12012P/TXT Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union] (2012) OJ C326/391.
 
*[https://treaties.un.org/doc/publication/ctc/uncharter.pdf Charter of the United Nations] (adopted 26 June 1945, entered into force 24 October 1945) 1 UNTS 16.
 
*[https://treaties.un.org/doc/publication/ctc/uncharter.pdf Charter of the United Nations] (adopted 26 June 1945, entered into force 24 October 1945) 1 UNTS 16.
*[https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms] (opened to the signature in Rome on 4 November 1950, entered into force 3 September 1953), ETS 5.
+
*[https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms] (opened to the signature in Rome on 4 November 1950, entered into force 3 September 1953) ETS 5.
 
*[https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/Volume&#x20;974/volume-974-I-14118-english.pdf Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation] (signed 23 September 1971, entered into force 26 January 1973) 974 UNTS 178 (“Montreal Convention”).
 
*[https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/Volume&#x20;974/volume-974-I-14118-english.pdf Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation] (signed 23 September 1971, entered into force 26 January 1973) 974 UNTS 178 (“Montreal Convention”).
 
*Council of Europe, [https://www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/treaty/185 Convention on Cybercrime] (adopted 23 November 2001, entered into force 1 July 2004).
 
*Council of Europe, [https://www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/treaty/185 Convention on Cybercrime] (adopted 23 November 2001, entered into force 1 July 2004).
  +
*Council Regulation (EC) No 428/2009 of 5 May 2009 setting up a [https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:02009R0428-20171216 Community regime for the control of exports, transfer, brokering and transit of dual-use items] (consolidated version as of 16 December 2017).
*Council of the European Union, "[https://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/31666/st14435en17.pdf Council Conclusions on the Joint Communication to the European Parliament and the Council: Resilience, Deterrence and Defence: Building strong cybersecurity for the EU]" (Council conclusions, 20 November 2017).
 
*Council Regulation (EC) No 428/2009 of 5 May 2009 setting up a [https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:02009R0428-20171216 Community regime for the control of exports, transfer, brokering and transit of dual-use items] consolidated version as of 16 December 2017.
 
*[https://rm.coe.int/16800cce5b Documents of the United Nations Conference on International Organization] (1945), vol VI, Explanatory Report to the Convention on Cybercrime.
 
*[https://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000160279.pdf G7 Principles and Actions on Cyber] (Annex to the Ise-Shima Declaration from 27 May 2016).
 
*[https://www.nato.int/nato_static_fl2014/assets/pdf/pdf_2011_05/20110926_110526-G8-Summit-Deauville.pdf G8 ''Summit of Deauville, Declaration: Renewed Commitment for Freedom and Democracy''] (27 May 2011).
 
 
*ILC, [http://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/commentaries/9_6_2001.pdf Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts], with commentaries, Yearbook of the ILC (2001).
 
*ILC, [http://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/commentaries/9_6_2001.pdf Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts], with commentaries, Yearbook of the ILC (2001).
*ILC, [http://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/commentaries/9_11_2011.pdf Draft Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations], with commentaries, Yearbook of the ILC (2011).
+
*ILC, [http://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/commentaries/9_11_2011.pdf Draft Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations], with commentaries (UNYBILC, 2011).
  +
* ILC, [http://legal.un.org/ilc/publications/yearbooks/english/ilc_1966_v2.pdf Document A/6309/ Rev.1: Reports of the International Law Commission on the second part of its seventeenth and on its eighteenth session] (UNYBILC II, 1966).
*International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (adopted 16 December 1966, entered into force 23 March 1976) 999 UNTS 171.
 
  +
*[https://treaties.un.org/doc/publication/unts/volume%20999/volume-999-i-14668-english.pdf International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights] (adopted 16 December 1966, entered into force 23 March 1976) 999 UNTS 171.
 
*[https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cescr.aspx International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights] (adopted 16 December 1966, entered into force 3 January 1976) 993 UNTS 3.
 
*[https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cescr.aspx International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights] (adopted 16 December 1966, entered into force 3 January 1976) 993 UNTS 3.
*NATO, ''[https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_133169.htm Warsaw Summit Communiqué]'' (9 July 2016).
 
*Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, ''[https://www.osce.org/pc/227281?download=true Decision No. 1202, OSCE Confidence-Building Measures to Reduce the Risks of Conflict Stemming from the Use of Information and Communication Technologies]'' (Permanent Council, 10 March 2016) PC.DEC/1202.
 
 
*[https://www.icrc.org/en/doc/assets/files/other/icrc_002_0321.pdf Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts] (Protocol 1) (signed 12 December 1977, entered into force 7 December 1978) 1125 UNTS 3.
 
*[https://www.icrc.org/en/doc/assets/files/other/icrc_002_0321.pdf Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts] (Protocol 1) (signed 12 December 1977, entered into force 7 December 1978) 1125 UNTS 3.
 
*[https://www.icrc.org/en/doc/assets/files/other/icrc_002_0321.pdf Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts] (Protocol II) (signed 12 December 1977, entered into force 7 December 1978) 1125 UNTS 609.
 
*[https://www.icrc.org/en/doc/assets/files/other/icrc_002_0321.pdf Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts] (Protocol II) (signed 12 December 1977, entered into force 7 December 1978) 1125 UNTS 609.
  +
* [https://www.icj-cij.org/en/statute Statute of the International Court of Justice] (adopted 26 June 1945, entered into force 24 October 1945).  
*'[http://legal.un.org/ilc/documentation/english/a_cn4_534.pdf Sixth report on unilateral acts of States]' (30 May 2003) by Victor Rodríguez Cedeño, Special Rapporteur, UN Doc A/CN.4/534 58.   
 
  +
*UNGA Res 2625 (XXV), ‘[https://treaties.un.org/doc/source/docs/A_RES_2625-Eng.pdf Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations]’ (24 October 1970).
*The International Law Commission, 'Document A/6309/ Rev.1: Reports of the International Law Commission on the second part of its seventeenth and on its eighteenth session' [http://legal.un.org/ilc/publications/yearbooks/english/ilc_1966_v2.pdf Yearbook of the International Law Commission Vol. II] (1966) 247.
 
  +
*UNGA Res 55/63, ‘[https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/428861?ln=en Combating the criminal misuse of information technologies]’ (UN Doc. A/RES/55/63, 4 December 2000).
*UN GA Res 2625 (XXV) (24 October 1970) (Friendly Relations Declaration).
 
  +
*UNGA Res 68/243, ‘[https://undocs.org/A/RES/68/243 Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security]’ (UN Doc. A/RES/68/243, 27 December 2013).
*UN GA Res 55/63 (4 December 2000), Doc A/RES/55/63.
 
*UN GGE 2015 '[https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N15/228/35/PDF/N1522835.pdf?OpenElement Report of the Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security report]' (22 July 2015) UN Doc A/70/174.
+
* UNGA Res 70/237, [https://unoda-web.s3-accelerate.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/A-RES-70-237-Information-Security.pdf Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security] (UN Doc. A/RES/20/237, 23 December 2015).
  +
* UNGA Res 76/19, ‘[https://undocs.org/en/A/RES/76/19 Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security, and advancing responsible State behaviour in the use of information and communications technologies]’ (UN Doc. A/RES/76/19, 8 December 2021).
*UN Human Rights Committee, ‘[http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhsjYoiCfMKoIRv2FVaVzRkMjTnjRO%2bfud3cPVrcM9YR0iW6Txaxgp3f9kUFpWoq%2fhW%2fTpKi2tPhZsbEJw%2fGeZRASjdFuuJQRnbJEaUhby31WiQPl2mLFDe6ZSwMMvmQGVHA%3d%3d General Comment No. 31 (80): The Nature of the General Legal Obligation Imposed on States Parties to the Covenant]’ (adopted on 29 March 2004, 2187th meeting).
 
  +
*UN Security Council, [http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/GetFile?OpenAgent&DS=S/RES/2321(2016)&Lang=E&Type=DOC Resolution 2321] (2016) Adopted by the Security Council at its 7821st meeting, on 30 November 2016.
*UN Human Rights Committee, ''Summary Record of the 1405th Meeting,'' CCPR/C/SR.1405 (31 March 1995) 6.
 
*UN Human Rights Committee, [https://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrc/docs/gc34.pdf ICCPR General Comment No. 34] (12 September 2011).
+
*UN Human Rights Council Res 32/13, [https://ap.ohchr.org/documents/dpage_e.aspx?si=A/HRC/RES/32/13 The promotion, protection and enjoyment of human rights on the Internet] (UN Doc. A/HRC/RES/32/13, 1 July 2016).
*UN SC, [http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/GetFile?OpenAgent&DS=S/RES/2321(2016)&Lang=E&Type=DOC Resolution 2321] (2016) Adopted by the Security Council at its 7821st meeting, on 30 November 2016.
 
*UNGA ‘[http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/70/174 Report of the Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security]’ (22 July 2015), A/70/174.
 
*UNGA [http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/68/243 Res 68/243] (27 December 2013) UN Doc A/RES/68/243.
 
*UNGA [https://unoda-web.s3-accelerate.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/A-RES-70-237-Information-Security.pdf Res 71/237] (30 December 2015) UN Doc A/RES/20/237.
 
*United Nations Human Rights Council, ''[https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/156/90/PDF/G1615690.pdf?OpenElement The promotion, protection and enjoyment of human rights on the Internet]'', Resolution A/HRC/RES/32/13 (1 July 2016).
 
*US Department of Defence, ''[https://dod.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/DoD&#x20;Law&#x20;of&#x20;War&#x20;Manual&#x20;-&#x20;June&#x20;2015&#x20;Updated&#x20;Dec&#x20;2016.pdf?ver=2016-12-13-172036-190 Law of War Manual]'' (December 2016).
 
 
*[http://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/9_2_1963.pdf Vienna Convention on Consular Relations] (adopted 24 April 1963, entered into force 19 March 1967), 596 UNTS 261.
 
*[http://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/9_2_1963.pdf Vienna Convention on Consular Relations] (adopted 24 April 1963, entered into force 19 March 1967), 596 UNTS 261.
 
*[http://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/9_1_1961.pdf Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations] (adopted 18 April 1961, entered into force 24 April 1964), 500 UNTS 95.
 
*[http://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/9_1_1961.pdf Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations] (adopted 18 April 1961, entered into force 24 April 1964), 500 UNTS 95.
 
*[https://treaties.un.org/doc/publication/unts/volume%201155/volume-1155-i-18232-english.pdf Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties] (adopted 23 May 1969, entered into force 27 January 1908) 1155 UNTS 331.
 
*[https://treaties.un.org/doc/publication/unts/volume%201155/volume-1155-i-18232-english.pdf Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties] (adopted 23 May 1969, entered into force 27 January 1908) 1155 UNTS 331.
   
== Newspaper articles and online news ==
 
 
== Blog posts and other online sources ==
 
== Blog posts and other online sources ==
* James Clapper, US, Director of National Intelligence, [https://www.dni.gov/files/documents/Unclassified_2015_ATA_SFR_-_SASC_FINAL.pdf Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community] (26 February 2015).
+
* James Clapper, US, Director of National Intelligence, [https://www.dni.gov/files/documents/Unclassified_2015_ATA_SFR_-_SASC_FINAL.pdf Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community] (26 February 2015).
  +
*Council of the European Union, ‘[https://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/31666/st14435en17.pdf Council Conclusions on the Joint Communication to the European Parliament and the Council: Resilience, Deterrence and Defence: Building strong cybersecurity for the EU]’ (Council conclusions, 20 November 2017).
*Brian Egan, US, State Department Legal Advisor, [https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Brian-J.-Egan-International-Law-and-Stability-in-Cyberspace-Berkeley-Nov-2016.pdf International Law and Stability in Cyberspace], Speech at Berkeley Law School (10 November 2016).
 
  +
*[https://rm.coe.int/16800cce5b Documents of the United Nations Conference on International Organization] (1945), vol VI, Explanatory Report to the Convention on Cybercrime.
*Brian Egan, State Department Legal Adviser, “[https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/ils/vol92/iss1/7/ Remarks to the American Society of International Law: International Law, Legal Diplomacy, and the Counter-ISIL Campaign]” (1 April 2016).
 
  +
*Brian Egan, US, State Department Legal Advisor, ‘[https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Brian-J.-Egan-International-Law-and-Stability-in-Cyberspace-Berkeley-Nov-2016.pdf International Law and Stability in Cyberspace]’, Speech at Berkeley Law School (10 November 2016).
*[http://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/23729/g20-antalya-leaders-summit-communique.pdf G20 Leaders’ Communiqué] (15–16 November 2015).
 
  +
*Brian Egan, State Department Legal Advisor, ‘[https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/ils/vol92/iss1/7/ Remarks to the American Society of International Law: International Law, Legal Diplomacy, and the Counter-ISIL Campaign]’ (1 April 2016).
*Tim Maurer and Michael Schmitt, ‘[https://www.justsecurity.org/44411/protecting-financial-data-cyberspace-precedent-progress-cyber-norms/ Protecting Financial Data in Cyberspace: Precedent for Further Progress on Cyber Norms?]’ ''Just Security,'' 14th August 2017.
 
  +
* Alexander Gamero-Garrido and others, ‘[https://www.caida.org/workshops/aims/1904/slides/aims1904_agamero-handout.pdf Inferring Country-Level Transit Influence of Autonomous Systems]’ (on Active Internet Measurement Systems Conference, San Diego April 2019).
*North Atlantic Treaty Organization, '[https://www.nato.int/cps/ic/natohq/official_texts_112964.htm Wales Summit Declaration]' issued by the Head of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Wales (5 September 2015).
 
  +
* G7, ‘[https://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000160279.pdf Principles and Actions on Cyber]’ (Annex to the Ise-Shima Declaration from 27 May 2016).
*President of the United States, [https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/rss_viewer/international_strategy_for_cyberspace.pdf ‘International Strategy for Cyberspace: Prosperity, Security, and Openness in a Networked World’] (2011).
 
  +
*G8, ‘[https://www.nato.int/nato_static_fl2014/assets/pdf/pdf_2011_05/20110926_110526-G8-Summit-Deauville.pdf Declaration: Renewed Commitment for Freedom and Democracy]’ (Summit of Deauville, 27 May 2011).
*‘President Xi Jinping’s State Visit to the United States: [https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2015/09/25/fact-sheet-president-xi-jinpings-state-visit-united-states FACT SHEET]: ’ (25 September 2015).
 
  +
*G20, ‘[http://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/23729/g20-antalya-leaders-summit-communique.pdf Leaders’ Communiqué]’ (15–16 November 2015).
*Michael N Schmitt and Sean Fahey, ‘[https://www.justsecurity.org/50038/wannacry-international-law-cyberspace/ WannaCry and the International Law of Cyberspace]’, ''JustSecurity'', 22 December 2017.
 
  +
*Erica Häger & Carolina Dackö, ‘[https://www.mannheimerswartling.se/globalassets/nyhetsbrev/msa_nyhetsbrev_economic_espionage_dec17_a4_final.pdf Economic Espionage: A Report by Mannheimer Swartling]’ (2018).
  +
*ICRC, ‘[https://www.icrc.org/en/doc/assets/files/other/icrc-002-0990.pdf Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities under International Humanitarian Law]’ (ICRC 2009).
  +
*ICRC, ‘[https://shop.icrc.org/international-humanitarian-law-and-the-challenges-of-contemporary-armed-conflicts-recommitting-to-protection-in-armed-conflict-on-the-70th-anniversary-of-the-geneva-conventions-pdf-en International Humanitarian Law and the Challenges of Contemporary Armed Conflicts: Recommitting to Protection in Armed Conflict on the 70th Anniversary of the Geneva Conventions]’ (ICRC 2019).
  +
*ICRC, ‘[https://shop.icrc.org/a-guide-to-the-legal-review-of-new-weapons-means-and-methods-of-warfare-pdf-en A Guide to the Legal Review of New Weapons, Means and Methods of Warfare: Measures to Implement Article 36 of Additional Protocol I of 1977]’ (Kathleen Lawand (ed), ICRC 2006).
  +
*ICRC, ‘[http://www.icrc.org/en/download/file/108983/icrc_ihl-and-cyber-operations-during-armed-conflicts.pdf International Humanitarian Law and Cyber Operations during Armed Conflicts: ICRC Position Paper]’ (November 2019).
  +
*Harriet Moynihan, ‘[https://www.chathamhouse.org/2019/12/application-international-law-state-cyberattacks The Application of International Law to State Cyberattacks: Sovereignty and Non-intervention]’ (Chatham House, 2019).
  +
* North Atlantic Treaty Organization, ‘[https://www.nato.int/cps/ic/natohq/official_texts_112964.htm Wales Summit Declaration]’ (issued by the Head of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Wales, 5 September 2015).
  +
* North Atlantic Treaty Organization, ‘[https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_133169.htm Warsaw Summit Communiqué]’ (issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Warsaw, 9 July 2016).
  +
*Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, ‘[https://www.osce.org/pc/227281?download=true Decision No. 1202, OSCE Confidence-Building Measures to Reduce the Risks of Conflict Stemming from the Use of Information and Communication Technologies]’ (Permanent Council, 10 March 2016) PC.DEC/1202.
  +
* ‘[https://www.elac.ox.ac.uk/the-oxford-statement-on-the-international-law-protections-against-cyber-operations-targeting-the-hea Oxford Statement on the International Law Protections against Cyber Operations Targeting the Health-Care Sector]’ (20 May 2020).
  +
* Permanent Mission of Liechtenstein to the United Nations, ‘[https://www.regierung.li/files/medienarchiv/The-Council-of-Advisers-Report-on-the-Application-of-the-Rome-Statute-of-the-International-Criminal-Court-to-Cyberwarfare.pdf The Council of Advisers’ Report on the Application of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court to Cyberwarfare]’ (August 2021).
  +
*‘[http://legal.un.org/ilc/documentation/english/a_cn4_534.pdf Sixth report on unilateral acts of States]’ (30 May 2003) by Victor Rodríguez Cedeño, Special Rapporteur, UN Doc A/CN.4/534.
  +
* ‘[https://elac.web.ox.ac.uk/article/the-second-oxford-statement#/ The Second Oxford Statement on International Law Protections of the Healthcare Sector During COVID-19: Safeguarding Vaccine Research]’ (7 August 2020).
  +
*UN Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security, ‘[https://undocs.org/en/A/70/174 Report of the Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security]’ (UN Doc A/70/174, 22 July 2015).
  +
*UN Human Rights Committee, ‘[https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CCPR%2FC%2FSR.1405&Lang=en Summary Record of the 1405th Meeting]’ (CCPR/C/SR.1405, 31 March 1995) [20].
  +
*UN Human Rights Committee, ‘[https://undocs.org/CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.6 General Comment No. 24 on issues relating to reservations made upon ratification or accession to the Covenant or the Optional Protocols thereto, or in relation to declarations under article 41 of the Covenant]’ (CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.6, 11 November 1994).
  +
*UN Human Rights Committee, ‘[https://undocs.org/CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.9 General Comment No. 27, Article 12: Freedom of Movement]’ (CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.9, 1 November 1999).
  +
*UN Human Rights Committee, ‘[https://undocs.org/CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.13 General Comment No. 31 (80), The Nature of the General Legal Obligation Imposed on States Parties to the Covenant]’ (CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.13, 29 March 2004).
  +
*UN Human Rights Committee, ‘[https://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrc/docs/gc34.pdf General Comment No. 34, Article 19: Freedoms of opinion and expression]’ (CCPR/C/GC/34, 12 September 2011).
  +
*United States, ‘[https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/rss_viewer/international_strategy_for_cyberspace.pdf International Strategy for Cyberspace: Prosperity, Security, and Openness in a Networked World]’ (May 2011).
  +
*United States, ‘[https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2015/09/25/fact-sheet-president-xi-jinpings-state-visit-united-states FACT SHEET: President Xi Jinping’s State Visit to the United States]’ (25 September 2015).
  +
*United States, ‘[https://armypubs.army.mil/epubs/DR_pubs/DR_a/pdf/web/ARN19354_FM%206-27%20_C1_FINAL_WEB_v2.pdf The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Land Warfare]’ (FM 6-27, MCTP 11-10C, August 2019).
  +
*United States Department of Defense, ''[https://dod.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/DoD%20Law%20of%20War%20Manual%20-%20June%202015%20Updated%20Dec%202016.pdf?ver=2016-12-13-172036-190 Law of War Manual]'' (December 2016).
  +
*Matthew Waxman, Principal Deputy Director of Policy Planning, U.S. Department of State, ‘[https://2001-2009.state.gov/g/drl/rls/70392.htm Opening Statement to the U.N. Human Rights Committee on the Report Concerning the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights]’ (17 July 2006).
 
*Jeremy Wright, QC MP, UK Attorney General ‘[https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/cyber-and-international-law-in-the-21st-century Cyber and International Law in the 21st Century]’ (23 May 2018).
 
*Jeremy Wright, QC MP, UK Attorney General ‘[https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/cyber-and-international-law-in-the-21st-century Cyber and International Law in the 21st Century]’ (23 May 2018).
  +
*Internet Society, ‘[https://www.internetsociety.org/policybriefs/internet-shutdowns Policy brief: Internet Shutdowns]’ (Internet Society 18 December 2019).

Revision as of 14:32, 26 May 2022

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