Books and monographs Edit
William H Boothby,
(OUP 2012). The Law of Targeting William H Boothby,
Weapons and the Law of Armed Conflict (OUP 2016). Ian Brownlie,
(OUP 1963). International Law and the Use of Force by States Oliver Corten,
The Law against War (Hart Pub 2010). James Crawford,
Brownlie's Principles of Public International Law (OUP 2012). James Crawford,
State Responsibility: The General Part (CUP 2013). François Delerue,
(CUP 2020). Cyber Operations and International Law Heather H Dinniss,
(CUP 2012). Cyber Warfare and the Laws of War Yoram Dinstein,
(CUP 2016). The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict Yoram Dinstein,
(CUP 2014). Non-International Armed Conflicts in International Law Christine Gray,
International Law and the use of force (OUP 2018). Joanna Kulesza,
Due Diligence in International Law (Brill 2016). Kubo Mačák,
(OUP 2018). Internationalized Armed Conflicts in International Law René Provost,
International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law (CUP 2002). Marco Roscini,
Cyber Operations and the Use of Force in International Law (OUP 2014). Gary D Solis,
The Law of Armed Conflict: International Humanitarian Law in War (CUP 2016). Nigel White,
The Law of International Organizations (Juris 2005). Noam Zamir, Classification of Conflicts in International Humanitarian Law: The Legal Impact of Foreign Intervention in Civil Wars (Edward Elgar 2017) . Contributions to edited collections Edit
Russell Buchan, ‘
The International Legal Regulation of State-Sponsored Cyber Espionage’ (2016) in Anna-Maria Osula and Henry Rõigas (eds) International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives (NATO CCD COE Publications, Tallinn 2016). Lindsey Cameron et al, ‘Article 3: Conflicts Not of an International Character’ in ICRC (ed),
(CUP 2016). Commentary on the First Geneva Convention Andrew Clapham, ‘Concept of International Armed Conflict’ in Andrew Clapham, Paola Gaeta, and Marco Sassòli (eds),
(OUP 2015). The 1949 Geneva Conventions: A Commentary Jean D’Aspremont, ‘
Persona Non Grata’, in Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed), Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (OUP 2008). Oliver Dörr and Albrecht Randelzhofer, ‘Article 2(4)’ in Bruno Simma et al (eds),
The Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary (OUP 2012). Frederic Dopagne, ‘Sanctions and Countermeasures by International Organizations’, in Richard Collins and Nigel White (eds)
International Organizations and the Idea of Autonomy (Routledge 2011). Tristan Ferraro and Lindsey Cameron, ‘Article 2: Application of the Convention’, in ICRC (ed),
(CUP 2016). Commentary on the First Geneva Convention Robin Geiss and Henning Lahmann, ‘Freedom and Security in Cyberspace: Shifting the Focus Away from Military Responses Towards Non-Forcible Countermeasures and Collective Threat-Prevention’ in Katharina Ziolkowski (ed),
Peacetime Regime for State Activities in Cyberspace (NATO CCD COE 2013). Jan K Kleffner, ‘Scope of Application of Humanitarian Law’ in Dieter Fleck (ed),
(3rd edn, OUP 2013). The Handbook of International Humanitarian Law Franck Latty, ‘Actions and Omissions’ in James Crawford et al (eds),
The Law of International Responsibility (OUP 2010). Georg Nolte and Albrecht Randelzhofer, ‘Article 51’ in Bruno Simma et al (eds),
The Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary (OUP 2012). Anne Peters, ‘Article 25’ in Bruno Simma et al (eds),
(3rd edn, OUP 2012). The Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary Rüdiger Wolfrum, ‘Obligation of Result Versus Obligation of Conduct: Some Thoughts About the Implementation of International Obligations’ in Mahnoush H Arsanjani et al,
Looking to the Future: Essays on International Law in Honor of Michael Reisman (Brill 2010). Silja Vöneky, ‘ Analogy in International Law’, in Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed), Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (OUP 2008). Edited books and reference texts Edit Journal articles Edit
Steven Bellovin, Susan Landau and Herbert Lin, ‘
Limiting the Undesired Impact of Cyber Weapons: Technical Requirements and Policy Implications’ (2017) 3(1) Journal of Cybersecurity 59. Jeffrey T Biller and Michael N Schmitt, ‘
Classification of Cyber Capabilities and Operations as Weapons, Means, or Methods of Warfare’ (2019) 95 Int’l L Stud 179. Duncan Blake and Joseph Imburgia, ‘“
Bloodless Weapons”? The Need to Conduct Legal Review of Certain Capabilities and the Implications of Defining Them as “Weapons”’, (2010) 66 Air Force Law Review 157. Vincent Boulanin and Maaike Verbruggen,
 SIPRI. Article 36 Reviews: Dealing with the Challenges Posed by Emerging Technologies Mark Bromley, ‘
Export Controls, Human Security and Cyber-Surveillance Technology: Examining the Proposed Changes to the EU Dual-use Regulation’  SIPRI. Gary Brown and Andrew Metcalf, ‘
Easier Said Than Done: Legal Reviews of Cyber Weapons’ (2014) 7 Journal of National Security Law & Policy 115. Gary Brown and Keira Poellet,
‘The Customary International Law of Cyberspace’  Strategic Studies Quarterly 137. Luke Chircop, ‘
A Due Diligence Standard of Attribution in Cyberspace’ (2018) 67 ICLQ 643. Gary P. Corn and Robert Taylor, ‘
Sovereignty in the Age of Cyber’ (2017) 111 AJIL Unbound 207. Ashley Deeks, 'An International Legal Framework for Surveillance' (2015) 55 Virginia J Int'l L 291.
Heather H Dinniss, ‘
The Nature of Objects: Targeting Networks and the Challenge of Defining Cyber Military Objectives’ (2015) 48 Isr L Rev 39. Cordula Droege, ‘
Get Off My Cloud: Cyber Warfare, International Humanitarian Law, and the Protection of Civilians’ (2012) 94 IRRC 533. Dan Efrony and Yuval Shany, '
A Rule Book on the Shelf? Tallinn Manual 2.0 on Cyberoperations and Subsequent State Practice' (2018) 112 AJIL 583. David Fidler, ‘
Economic Cyber Espionage and International Law: Controversies Involving Government Acquisition of Trade Secrets through Cyber Technologies’ (2013) 17/10 ASIL Insights. Jack Goldsmith, ‘
’ (2013) 24 EJIL 129. How Cyber Changes the Laws of War James Green, ‘
Fluctuating Evidentiary Standards for Self-Defence in the International Court of Justice’ (2009) 58 ICLQ 163. Erika Häger and Carolina Dackö, ‘
Economic Espionage: A Report by Mannheimer Swartling’ (2018). Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg, '
Territorial Sovereignty and Neutrality in Cyberspace' (2013) 89 Int’l L Stud 123. David Kretzmer, ‘
The Inherent Right to Self-Defence and Proportionality in ’ (2013) 24 EJIL 235. Jus Ad Bellum Catherine Lotrionte, ‘
Countering State-Sponsored Cyber Economic Espionage Under International Law’ (2015) 40 NCJ Int'l L & Com Reg 443. Noam Lubell, ‘Lawful Targets in Cyber Operations: Does the Principle of Distinction Apply?’ (2013) 89 Int’l L Stud 252.
Kubo Mačák, ‘
Decoding Article 8 of the International Law Commission’s Articles on State Responsibility: Attribution of Cyber Operations by Non-State Actors’ (2016) 21 JCSL 405. Kubo Mačák, ‘
From Cyber Norms to Cyber Rules: Re-engaging States as Law-makers’ (2017) 30 LJIL 877. Kubo Mačák, ‘
Military Objectives 2.0: The Case for Interpreting Computer Data as Objects under International Humanitarian Law’ (2015) 48 Isr L Rev 55. Peter Margulies, '
Sovereignty and Cyber Attacks: Technology's Challenge to the Law of State Responsibility' (2013) 14 MJIL. Marko Milanovic, ‘
Human Rights Treaties and Foreign Surveillance: Privacy in the Digital Age’ (2015) 56/1 Harv Int'l LJ. Noam Neuman, ‘Challenges in the Interpretation and Application of the Principle of Distinction During Ground Operations in Urban Areas’ (2018) 51 VJTL 807.
Darien Pun, ‘
Rethinking Espionage in the Modern Era’ (2017) 18 Chicago JIL 353. Barrie Sander, ‘
Democracy Under The Influence: Paradigms of State Responsibility for Cyber Influence Operations on Elections’, (2019) 18 Chinese JIL __ (forthcoming). Dietrich Schindler, ‘The Different Types of Armed Conflicts According to the Geneva Conventions and Protocols’ (1979) 163 RdC 117.
Michael N Schmitt, ‘
International Cyber Norms: Reflections on the Path Ahead’ (2018) 111 Netherlands Military Law Review 12. Michael N Schmitt, ‘
The Notion of ‘Objects’ during Cyber Operations: A Riposte in Defence of Interpretive and Applicative Precision’ (2015) 48 Isr L Rev 81. Michael N Schmitt, '
Virtual Disenfranchisement: Cyber Election Meddling in the Grey Zones of International Law' (2018) 19 Chinese JIL 30. Michael N. Schmitt and Sean Watts, ‘
The Decline of International Humanitarian Law ’ (2015) 50 Tex Int'l LJ 189. Opinio Juris and the Law of Cyber Warfare Michael N Schmitt and Liis Vihul, ‘
Respect for Sovereignty in Cyberspace’ (2017) 95 Tex L Rev. 1639. Nicholas Tsagourias
' Cyber Attacks, Self-Defence and the Problem of Attribution' (2012) 17 (2) JCSL 23. David Wallace, ‘
Cyber Weapon Reviews under International Humanitarian Law: A Critical Analysis’ (2018) Tallinn Paper No. 11. Sean Watts and Theodore Richard, ' Baseline Territorial Sovereignty and Cyberspace' (2018) 22 Lewis & Clark L Rev. 771. International treaties, reports and other public documents Edit
American Convention on Human Rights (open for signature from 22 November 1969, entered into force 18 July 1978), 1144 UNTS 123.
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, proclaimed on 7 December 2000.
Charter of the United Nations (adopted 26 June 1945, entered into force 24 October 1945) 1 UNTS 16.
Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (opened to the signature in Rome on 4 November 1950, entered into force 3 September 1953), ETS 5.
Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation (signed 23 September 1971, entered into force 26 January 1973) 974 UNTS 178 (“Montreal Convention”). Council of Europe,
Convention on Cybercrime (adopted 23 November 2001, entered into force 1 July 2004). Council of the European Union, "
Council Conclusions on the Joint Communication to the European Parliament and the Council: Resilience, Deterrence and Defence: Building strong cybersecurity for the EU" (Council conclusions, 20 November 2017). Council Regulation (EC) No 428/2009 of 5 May 2009 setting up a
Community regime for the control of exports, transfer, brokering and transit of dual-use items consolidated version as of 16 December 2017.
Documents of the United Nations Conference on International Organization (1945), vol VI, Explanatory Report to the Convention on Cybercrime.
G7 Principles and Actions on Cyber (Annex to the Ise-Shima Declaration from 27 May 2016).
G8 (27 May 2011). Summit of Deauville, Declaration: Renewed Commitment for Freedom and Democracy ILC,
Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, with commentaries, Yearbook of the ILC (2001). ILC,
Draft Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations, with commentaries, Yearbook of the ILC (2011). International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (adopted 16 December 1966, entered into force 23 March 1976) 999 UNTS 171.
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (adopted 16 December 1966, entered into force 3 January 1976) 993 UNTS 3. NATO,
(9 July 2016). Warsaw Summit Communiqué Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe,
(Permanent Council, 10 March 2016) PC.DEC/1202. Decision No. 1202, OSCE Confidence-Building Measures to Reduce the Risks of Conflict Stemming from the Use of Information and Communication Technologies
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol 1) (signed 12 December 1977, entered into force 7 December 1978) 1125 UNTS 3.
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II) (signed 12 December 1977, entered into force 7 December 1978) 1125 UNTS 609. '
Sixth report on unilateral acts of States' (30 May 2003) by Victor Rodríguez Cedeño, Special Rapporteur, UN Doc A/CN.4/534. The International Law Commission, 'Document A/6309/ Rev.1: Reports of the International Law Commission on the second part of its seventeenth and on its eighteenth session'
Yearbook of the International Law Commission Vol. II (1966). UN GA Res 2625 (XXV) (24 October 1970) (Friendly Relations Declaration).
UN GA Res 55/63 (4 December 2000), Doc A/RES/55/63.
UN GGE 2015 '
Report of the Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security report' (22 July 2015) UN Doc A/70/174. UN Human Rights Committee, ‘
General Comment No. 31 (80): The Nature of the General Legal Obligation Imposed on States Parties to the Covenant’ (adopted on 29 March 2004, 2187th meeting). UN Human Rights Committee,
Summary Record of the 1405th Meeting, CCPR/C/SR.1405 (31 March 1995). UN Human Rights Committee,
ICCPR General Comment No. 34 (12 September 2011). UN SC,
Resolution 2321 (2016) Adopted by the Security Council at its 7821st meeting, on 30 November 2016. UNGA ‘
Report of the Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security’ (22 July 2015), A/70/174. UNGA
Res 68/243 (27 December 2013) UN Doc A/RES/68/243. UNGA
Res 71/237 (30 December 2015) UN Doc A/RES/20/237. United Nations Human Rights Council,
, Resolution A/HRC/RES/32/13 (1 July 2016). The promotion, protection and enjoyment of human rights on the Internet US Department of Defence,
(December 2016). Law of War Manual
Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (adopted 24 April 1963, entered into force 19 March 1967), 596 UNTS 261.
Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (adopted 18 April 1961, entered into force 24 April 1964), 500 UNTS 95. Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (adopted 23 May 1969, entered into force 27 January 1908) 1155 UNTS 331. Blog posts and other online sources Edit
James Clapper, US, Director of National Intelligence,
Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community (26 February 2015). Brian Egan, US, State Department Legal Advisor,
International Law and Stability in Cyberspace, Speech at Berkeley Law School (10 November 2016). Brian Egan, State Department Legal Adviser, “
Remarks to the American Society of International Law: International Law, Legal Diplomacy, and the Counter-ISIL Campaign” (1 April 2016).
G20 Leaders’ Communiqué (15–16 November 2015). Tim Maurer and Michael Schmitt, ‘
Protecting Financial Data in Cyberspace: Precedent for Further Progress on Cyber Norms?’ Just Security, 14 August 2017. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, '
Wales Summit Declaration' issued by the Head of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Wales (5 September 2015). President of the United States,
‘International Strategy for Cyberspace: Prosperity, Security, and Openness in a Networked World’ (2011). ‘President Xi Jinping’s State Visit to the United States:
FACT SHEET’ (25 September 2015). Michael N Schmitt and Jeffrey Biller, ‘
The NotPetya Cyber Operation as a Case Study of International Law’, EJIL: Talk!, 11 July 2017. Michael N Schmitt and Sean Fahey, ‘
WannaCry and the International Law of Cyberspace’, JustSecurity, 22 December 2017. Jeremy Wright, QC MP, UK Attorney General ‘ Cyber and International Law in the 21st Century’ (23 May 2018).