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==C==
 
==C==
;{{Anchor|Click farm}}Click farm
 
: See '''[[#Farm|farm]]'''.
 
 
;{{Anchor|Close Access Operation}}Close Access Operation
 
;{{Anchor|Close Access Operation}}Close Access Operation
 
: A '''[[#Cyber Operation|cyber operation]]''' requiring the actor’s physical proximity to the targeted system.
 
: A '''[[#Cyber Operation|cyber operation]]''' requiring the actor’s physical proximity to the targeted system.
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;{{Anchor|Common Criteria}}Common Criteria
 
;{{Anchor|Common Criteria}}Common Criteria
 
: International standard for evaluating the security properties of IT products.
 
: International standard for evaluating the security properties of IT products.
;{{Anchor|Computational Propaganda}}Computational Propaganda
 
: See '''[[#Propaganda|propaganda]]'''.
 
 
;{{Anchor|CERT|Computer Emergency Response Team}}Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT)
 
;{{Anchor|CERT|Computer Emergency Response Team}}Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT)
 
: A team that provides initial emergency response aid and triage services to the victims or potential victims of '''[[#Cyber Operation|cyber operations]]''' or cyber crimes, usually in a manner that involves coordination between private sector and government entities. These teams also maintain situational awareness about malicious cyber activities and new developments in the design and use of '''[[#Malware|malware]]''', providing defenders of computer networks with advice on how to address security threats and vulnerabilities associated with those activities and malware.
 
: A team that provides initial emergency response aid and triage services to the victims or potential victims of '''[[#Cyber Operation|cyber operations]]''' or cyber crimes, usually in a manner that involves coordination between private sector and government entities. These teams also maintain situational awareness about malicious cyber activities and new developments in the design and use of '''[[#Malware|malware]]''', providing defenders of computer networks with advice on how to address security threats and vulnerabilities associated with those activities and malware.
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;{{Anchor|DoS|Denial of Service}}Denial of Service (DoS)
 
;{{Anchor|DoS|Denial of Service}}Denial of Service (DoS)
 
: The non-availability of computer system resources to their users. A denial of service can result from a '''[[#Cyber Operation|cyber operation]]'''.
 
: The non-availability of computer system resources to their users. A denial of service can result from a '''[[#Cyber Operation|cyber operation]]'''.
;{{Anchor|Digital Hate Speech}}Digital Hate Speech
 
: See '''[[#Hate Speech|hate speech]]'''.
 
;{{Anchor|Disinformation}}Disinformation
 
: The spreading of intentionally false information, which was fabricated or disseminated by someone with ill intent (see also '''[[#Mal-information|mal-information]]''' and '''[[#Misinformation|misinformation]]''').
 
 
;{{Anchor|DDoS|Distributed Denial of Service}}Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS): A technique that employs multiple computing devices (e.g., computers or smartphones), such as the bots of a '''[[#Botnet|botnet]]''', to cause a '''[[#DoS|denial of service]]''' to a single or multiple targets.
 
;{{Anchor|DDoS|Distributed Denial of Service}}Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS): A technique that employs multiple computing devices (e.g., computers or smartphones), such as the bots of a '''[[#Botnet|botnet]]''', to cause a '''[[#DoS|denial of service]]''' to a single or multiple targets.
 
;{{Anchor|Domain Name}}Domain Name
 
;{{Anchor|Domain Name}}Domain Name
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==F==
 
==F==
;{{Anchor|Fake News}}Fake News
 
: A popular term that traditionally refers to deliberate '''[[#Disinformation|disinformation]]''' or hoaxes spread on social media or other online outlets. However, the term ‘fake news’ has been criticized for failing to capture the many ways in which information can be used as a vector of harm; and for undermining professional journalism.
 
;{{Anchor|Farm}}Farm
 
: In the context of '''[[#Misinformation|misinformation]]''', '''[[#Disinformation|disinformation]]''', and '''[[#Hate Speech|hate speech]]''', a farm refers to the hiring of large groups of (often low-paid) workers to perform a certain action online. For example, a '''click farm''' asks workers to click on certain links, advertising or like functions. This could be required in order to boost pay-per-click revenue. '''Troll farms''' ask workers to post deliberately inflammatory or provocative content, in order to create conflict or disruption online.
 
 
;{{Anchor|Firmware}}Firmware
 
;{{Anchor|Firmware}}Firmware
 
: Low level programming that acts as an interface between '''[[#Hardware|hardware]]''' and '''[[#Software|software]]'''.
 
: Low level programming that acts as an interface between '''[[#Hardware|hardware]]''' and '''[[#Software|software]]'''.
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;{{Anchor|Hardware}}Hardware
 
;{{Anchor|Hardware}}Hardware
 
: See '''[[#Cyber Infrastructure|cyber infrastructure]]'''.
 
: See '''[[#Cyber Infrastructure|cyber infrastructure]]'''.
;{{Anchor|Hashtag Hijacking}}Hashtag Hijacking
 
: The process via which a hashtag is used in a different way than originally intended, usually by a third party looking to gain visibility or derail a conversation. For example, during the 2014 FIFA World Cup, the Islamic state group often tacked trending hashtags like #Brazil2014, #ENG, #France and #WC2014 onto '''[[#Propaganda|propaganda]]''' tweets, in order to boost their reach.
 
;{{Anchor|Hate Speech}}Hate Speech
 
: All forms of expression (text, images, audio, video) which spread, incite, promote or justify hatred and violence based on intolerance, usually against identity traits (gender, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, etc.). When these forms of expression are shared or amplified through digital means, one can speak of '''digital hate speech'''. ''See also [[Scenario 19: Hate speech]].''
 
 
;{{Anchor|Honeynet}}Honeynet
 
;{{Anchor|Honeynet}}Honeynet
 
: A virtual environment consisting of multiple honeypots, designed to deceive an intruder into assuming that he or she has located a network of computing devices of targeting value.
 
: A virtual environment consisting of multiple honeypots, designed to deceive an intruder into assuming that he or she has located a network of computing devices of targeting value.
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==M==
 
==M==
;{{Anchor|Mal-information}}Mal-information
 
: The spreading of true information, but with the intent to cause harm (for example, by tainting someone’s broader reputation) (see also '''[[#Disinformation|disinformation]]''' and '''[[#Misinformation|misinformation]]''').
 
 
;{{Anchor|Malware}}Malware
 
;{{Anchor|Malware}}Malware
 
: '''[[#Software|Software]]''' that may be stored and executed in other software, '''[[#Firmware|firmware]]''', or '''[[#Hardware|hardware]]''' that is designed adversely to affect the performance of a computer system. Examples of malware include Trojan horses, '''[[#Rootkit|rootkits]]''', '''[[#Virus|viruses]]''', and '''[[#Worm|worms]]'''.
 
: '''[[#Software|Software]]''' that may be stored and executed in other software, '''[[#Firmware|firmware]]''', or '''[[#Hardware|hardware]]''' that is designed adversely to affect the performance of a computer system. Examples of malware include Trojan horses, '''[[#Rootkit|rootkits]]''', '''[[#Virus|viruses]]''', and '''[[#Worm|worms]]'''.
 
;{{Anchor|Metadata}}Metadata
 
;{{Anchor|Metadata}}Metadata
 
: '''[[#Data|Data]]''' that provides information about other data, such as its time of creation and origin. Metadata is essential when categorising, searching, storing, and understanding information.
 
: '''[[#Data|Data]]''' that provides information about other data, such as its time of creation and origin. Metadata is essential when categorising, searching, storing, and understanding information.
;{{Anchor|Misinformation}}Misinformation
 
: The spreading of unintentionally false information by individuals who believe the information to be true or have not taken the time to verify it (see also '''[[#Disinformation|disinformation]]''' and '''[[#Mal-information|mal-information]]''').
 
   
 
==N==
 
==N==
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;{{Anchor|PLC|Programmable logic controller}}Programmable logic controller (PLC)
 
;{{Anchor|PLC|Programmable logic controller}}Programmable logic controller (PLC)
 
: An electronic device, which carries out the control functions of various automatized processes in a broad range of industries, including manufacturing, travel, and agriculture. A PLC may be further networked to other PLCs and '''[[#SCADA|SCADA]]''' systems.
 
: An electronic device, which carries out the control functions of various automatized processes in a broad range of industries, including manufacturing, travel, and agriculture. A PLC may be further networked to other PLCs and '''[[#SCADA|SCADA]]''' systems.
;{{Anchor|Propaganda}}Propaganda
 
: Information that is used to promote or mislead a target audience towards a particular point of view. Propaganda may contain some true elements, but often presents them in a biased manner. When propaganda is facilitated by the use of digital advertising, social media algorithms or other exploitative strategies (such as '''[[#Hashtag Hijacking|hashtag hijacking]]'''), one can speak of '''computational propaganda'''.
 
   
 
==R==
 
==R==
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;{{Anchor|SCADA|Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition}}Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)
 
;{{Anchor|SCADA|Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition}}Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)
 
: Computer systems and instrumentation that provide for monitoring and controlling industrial, infrastructure, and facility-based processes, such as the operation of power plants, water treatment facilities, electrical distribution systems, oil and gas pipelines, airports, and factories.
 
: Computer systems and instrumentation that provide for monitoring and controlling industrial, infrastructure, and facility-based processes, such as the operation of power plants, water treatment facilities, electrical distribution systems, oil and gas pipelines, airports, and factories.
 
==T==
 
;{{Anchor|Troll Farm}}Troll Farm
 
: See '''[[#Farm|farm]]'''.
 
   
 
==V==
 
==V==

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