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! scope="col" style="background-color:#ffffaa;"| [[International human rights law]]
 
! scope="col" style="background-color:#ffffaa;"| [[International human rights law]]
 
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|[[File:International human rights law.svg|alt=|left|frameless|200x200px]]International human rights law applies in cyberspace; individuals enjoy the same human rights online as they enjoy offline.<ref>See, for example, United Nations Human Rights Council, [https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/156/90/PDF/G1615690.pdf?OpenElement <i>The promotion, protection and enjoyment of human rights on the Internet</i>, Resolution A/HRC/RES/32/13] (1 July 2016), para 1; NATO, <i>[https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_133169.htm Warsaw Summit Communiqué]</i> (9 July 2016), para 70; [https://www.nato.int/nato_static_fl2014/assets/pdf/pdf_2011_05/20110926_110526-G8-Summit-Deauville.pdf G8 <i>Summit of Deauville, Declaration: Renewed Commitment for Freedom and Democracy</i>] (27 May 2011), para II/11.</ref> States are therefore bound by their human rights obligations to both respect and ensure human rights in cyberspace. States also bear international responsibility for the violation of human rights obligations that are attributable to them.<ref>See, [https://www.icj-cij.org/files/case-related/91/091-20070226-JUD-01-00-EN.pdf <i>Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro)</i><nowiki> (Judgment) [2007] ICJ Rep 43</nowiki>], para 170.</ref>
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|[[File:Maki-toilet-15.svg|left|frameless|200x200px]]International human rights law applies in cyberspace; individuals enjoy the same human rights online as they enjoy offline.<ref>See, for example, United Nations Human Rights Council, [https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/156/90/PDF/G1615690.pdf?OpenElement <i>The promotion, protection and enjoyment of human rights on the Internet</i>, Resolution A/HRC/RES/32/13] (1 July 2016), para 1; NATO, <i>[https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_133169.htm Warsaw Summit Communiqué]</i> (9 July 2016), para 70; [https://www.nato.int/nato_static_fl2014/assets/pdf/pdf_2011_05/20110926_110526-G8-Summit-Deauville.pdf G8 <i>Summit of Deauville, Declaration: Renewed Commitment for Freedom and Democracy</i>] (27 May 2011), para II/11.</ref> States are therefore bound by their human rights obligations to both respect and ensure human rights in cyberspace. States also bear international responsibility for the violation of human rights obligations that are attributable to them.<ref>See, [https://www.icj-cij.org/files/case-related/91/091-20070226-JUD-01-00-EN.pdf <i>Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro)</i><nowiki> (Judgment) [2007] ICJ Rep 43</nowiki>], para 170.</ref>
   
 
The <b>source</b> of these obligations is primarily treaty law. The two key global treaties are the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR);<ref>[https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (adopted 16 December 1966], entered into force 23 March 1976) 999 UNTS 171 (ICCPR); [https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cescr.aspx International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights] (adopted 16 December 1966, entered into force 3 January 1976) 993 UNTS 3 (ICESCR).</ref> many of these treaties’ provisions, along with the provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, are regarded as reflective of customary international human rights law, even though there is no universally accepted codification. Apart from the ICCPR and ICESCR, there exist important regional human rights treaty systems, especially for Europe (European Convention on Human Rights – ECHR)<ref>Formal title: [https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms] (opened to the signature in Rome on 4 November 1950, entered into force 3 September 1953), ETS 5 (ECHR); there are several protocols which significantly expand and amend the obligations of the original Convention.</ref>, the European Union (Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union – EUCFR),<ref>[https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:12012P/TXT Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union], proclaimed on 7 December 2000 (EUCFR).</ref> and America (American Convention on Human Rights – ACHR)<ref>[https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316577226.029 American Convention on Human Rights] (open for signature from 22 November 1969, entered into force 18 July 1978), 1144 UNTS 123 (ACHR).</ref>, which provide for adjudicatory mechanisms by which individuals can assert their human rights against States and which have generated a considerable amount of case-law as a result.
 
The <b>source</b> of these obligations is primarily treaty law. The two key global treaties are the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR);<ref>[https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (adopted 16 December 1966], entered into force 23 March 1976) 999 UNTS 171 (ICCPR); [https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cescr.aspx International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights] (adopted 16 December 1966, entered into force 3 January 1976) 993 UNTS 3 (ICESCR).</ref> many of these treaties’ provisions, along with the provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, are regarded as reflective of customary international human rights law, even though there is no universally accepted codification. Apart from the ICCPR and ICESCR, there exist important regional human rights treaty systems, especially for Europe (European Convention on Human Rights – ECHR)<ref>Formal title: [https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms] (opened to the signature in Rome on 4 November 1950, entered into force 3 September 1953), ETS 5 (ECHR); there are several protocols which significantly expand and amend the obligations of the original Convention.</ref>, the European Union (Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union – EUCFR),<ref>[https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:12012P/TXT Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union], proclaimed on 7 December 2000 (EUCFR).</ref> and America (American Convention on Human Rights – ACHR)<ref>[https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316577226.029 American Convention on Human Rights] (open for signature from 22 November 1969, entered into force 18 July 1978), 1144 UNTS 123 (ACHR).</ref>, which provide for adjudicatory mechanisms by which individuals can assert their human rights against States and which have generated a considerable amount of case-law as a result.

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