Difference between revisions of "List of articles"

From International cyber law: interactive toolkit
Jump to navigation Jump to search
(→‎Real-world examples: updating the to-do list)
(→‎Scenarios: activating new scn)
 
(42 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 13: Line 13:
   
 
== Scenarios ==
 
== Scenarios ==
  +
<div style="column-count:3;-moz-column-count:3;-webkit-column-count:3">
 
* [[Scenario 01: Election interference]]
 
* [[Scenario 01: Election interference]]
 
* [[Scenario 02: Cyber espionage against government departments|Scenario 02: Political espionage]]
 
* [[Scenario 02: Cyber espionage against government departments|Scenario 02: Political espionage]]
Line 32: Line 33:
 
* [[Scenario 18: Legal status of cyber operators during armed conflict|Scenario 18: Cyber operators]]
 
* [[Scenario 18: Legal status of cyber operators during armed conflict|Scenario 18: Cyber operators]]
 
* [[Scenario 19: Hate speech]]
 
* [[Scenario 19: Hate speech]]
  +
* [[Scenario 20: Cyber operations against medical facilities|Scenario 20: Medical facilities]]
  +
* [[Scenario 21: Misattribution caused by deception|Scenario 21: Misattribution]]
  +
* [[Scenario 22: Cyber methods of warfare|Scenario 22: Methods of warfare]]
  +
* [[Scenario 23: Vaccine research and testing|Scenario 23: Vaccine research]]
  +
* [[Scenario 24: Internet blockage]]
  +
</div>
   
 
== Legal concepts ==
 
== Legal concepts ==
 
=== General international law ===
 
=== General international law ===
  +
* Applicability of international law
 
* Jurisdiction
 
* Jurisdiction
 
* [[State responsibility]]
 
* [[State responsibility]]
Line 41: Line 49:
 
*** [[Attribution#Non-State actors|Non-State actors]]
 
*** [[Attribution#Non-State actors|Non-State actors]]
 
*** [[Attribution#Evidentiary standards|Evidence]]
 
*** [[Attribution#Evidentiary standards|Evidence]]
  +
*** [[Responsibility of a State for the conduct of another State]]
  +
*** [[Mistake of fact (Law of State responsibility)|Mistake of fact]]
 
** [[Breach of an international obligation]]
 
** [[Breach of an international obligation]]
 
** Responses and justifications
 
** Responses and justifications
Line 56: Line 66:
 
* [[Prohibition of intervention]]
 
* [[Prohibition of intervention]]
 
* [[Prohibition of genocide]]
 
* [[Prohibition of genocide]]
  +
* [[Transboundary harm]]
  +
* [[Voluntary, non-binding norms of responsible state behavior]]
 
* Cyber operations not ''per se'' regulated by international law
 
* Cyber operations not ''per se'' regulated by international law
 
** [[Peacetime cyber espionage]]
 
** [[Peacetime cyber espionage]]
Line 68: Line 80:
 
* Air law
 
* Air law
 
* Space law
 
* Space law
* International telecommunications law
+
* [[International telecommunication law]]
 
* [[International human rights law]]
 
* [[International human rights law]]
 
* [[Individual criminal responsibility under international law|International criminal law]]
 
* [[Individual criminal responsibility under international law|International criminal law]]
Line 76: Line 88:
   
 
=== Use of force, conflict and international law ===
 
=== Use of force, conflict and international law ===
  +
* [[Peaceful settlement of disputes]]
 
* [[Use of force|International law on the use of force (''jus ad bellum'')]]
 
* [[Use of force|International law on the use of force (''jus ad bellum'')]]
 
** Armed attack
 
** Armed attack
 
** [[Self-defence]]
 
** [[Self-defence]]
* International humanitarian law (''jus in bello'')
+
* [[International humanitarian law (jus in bello)|International humanitarian law (''jus in bello'')]]
 
** Conflict qualification
 
** Conflict qualification
 
*** [[International armed conflict]]
 
*** [[International armed conflict]]
 
*** [[Non-international armed conflict]]
 
*** [[Non-international armed conflict]]
** Conduct of hostilities
+
** [[Conduct of hostilities]]
  +
<!-- *** The principle of precaution (in FR position)-->
 
*** [[Military objectives]]
 
*** [[Military objectives]]
  +
**** [[Military_objectives#Qualification_of_data_as_a_military_objective_under_IHL|Data as a military objective]]
  +
*** [[Attack (international humanitarian law)|The notion of ‘attack’ under international humanitarian law]]
 
*** [[Combatancy]]
 
*** [[Combatancy]]
 
**** [[Direct participation in hostilities]]
 
**** [[Direct participation in hostilities]]
 
*** [[Attacks against persons]]
 
*** [[Attacks against persons]]
*** Means and methods of warfare
+
*** [[Means and methods of cyber warfare]]
 
**** [[Perfidy and ruses of war]]
 
**** [[Perfidy and ruses of war]]
 
**** [[Misuse of established indicators]]
 
**** [[Misuse of established indicators]]
 
**** [[Legal review of cyber weapons]]
 
**** [[Legal review of cyber weapons]]
** Certain persons, objects and activities
+
** [[Specially protected persons, objects, and activities (international humanitarian law)|Specially protected persons, objects, and activities]]
  +
*** [[Protection of medical units during armed conflict]]
 
** Occupation
 
** Occupation
** Neutrality
+
** [[Neutrality]]
   
 
== Real-world examples ==
 
== Real-world examples ==
  +
* 2021
  +
** [[Colonial Pipeline ransomware attack (2021)]]
  +
** [[Health Service Executive ransomware attack (2021)]]
  +
** [[Microsoft Exchange Server data breach (2021)]]
  +
<!--** [[Pegasus Project revelations (2021)]] work in progress (NÚKIB)-->
 
* 2020
 
* 2020
 
** [[African Union headquarters hack (2020)]]
 
** [[African Union headquarters hack (2020)]]
Line 103: Line 125:
 
* 2019
 
* 2019
 
** [[Cyber interference against vessels in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman (2019)]]
 
** [[Cyber interference against vessels in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman (2019)]]
  +
** [[Iranian internet blackout (2019)]]
 
** [[Israeli attack against Hamas cyber headquarters in Gaza (2019)]]
 
** [[Israeli attack against Hamas cyber headquarters in Gaza (2019)]]
  +
** [[Russia's sovereign internet (2019 onward)]]
 
** [[Texas Municipality ransomware attack (2019)]]
 
** [[Texas Municipality ransomware attack (2019)]]
 
* 2018
 
* 2018
 
** [[African Union headquarters hack (2018)]]
 
** [[African Union headquarters hack (2018)]]
  +
** [[Olympic Destroyer (2018)]]
 
** [[SamSam ransomware incidents (2018)]]
 
** [[SamSam ransomware incidents (2018)]]
 
* 2017
 
* 2017
Line 132: Line 157:
 
** [[Steel mill in Germany (2014)]]
 
** [[Steel mill in Germany (2014)]]
 
** [[Ukrainian parliamentary election interference (2014)]]
 
** [[Ukrainian parliamentary election interference (2014)]]
  +
* 2012
* 2013 and before
 
 
** [[Shamoon (2012)]]
 
** [[Shamoon (2012)]]
  +
* 2011
  +
** [[Caucasus internet outage (2011)]]
 
** [[Syria’s ‘social media war’ (since 2011)]]
 
** [[Syria’s ‘social media war’ (since 2011)]]
 
** [[DigiNotar (2011)]]
 
** [[DigiNotar (2011)]]
  +
* 2010
 
** [[Hate speech in Myanmar (since early 2010s)]]
 
** [[Hate speech in Myanmar (since early 2010s)]]
 
** [[Stuxnet (2010)]]
 
** [[Stuxnet (2010)]]
  +
** [[SuperMicro supply chain breach (since 2010)]]
  +
* 2008
 
** [[Georgia-Russia conflict (2008)]]
 
** [[Georgia-Russia conflict (2008)]]
  +
** [[Bangladesh internet outage (2008)]]
  +
* 2007
 
** [[Cyber attacks against Estonia (2007)]]
 
** [[Cyber attacks against Estonia (2007)]]
  +
** [[Operation Orchard/Outside the Box (2007)]]
 
<!--
 
<!--
   
 
The following examples should be created as a priority, in this order:
 
The following examples should be created as a priority, in this order:
  +
* Kaseya / REvil
* [[Colonial Pipeline (2021)]]
 
* [[Irish health service (2021)]]
+
* [[Pegasus Project revelations (2021)]] work in progress (NÚKIB)
* [[Microsoft Exchange (2021)]]: the Main page flash news has been created, but the example page not (yet); update needed with regard to the attribution from 19 July 2021
 
* [[SuperMicro (2021)]]: https://www.bloomberg.com/features/2021-supermicro/
 
 
* [[Google shuts down an active counterterrorism operation (2021)]]: https://www.technologyreview.com/2021/03/26/1021318/google-security-shut-down-counter-terrorist-us-ally/
 
* [[Google shuts down an active counterterrorism operation (2021)]]: https://www.technologyreview.com/2021/03/26/1021318/google-security-shut-down-counter-terrorist-us-ally/
  +
* [[Chinese infiltration into EU parliamentary proceedings (2018)]]
* [[Project Pegasus revelations (2021)]]
 
  +
  +
The following were proposed to be added to SCN02:
  +
* Bugging Device found in UN Offices (2004)
  +
* Bugging Devices found in EU Offices (2003)
  +
* Operation Titan Rain (2003-2007)
  +
* U.S. spying on Angela Merkel and other European leaders (2012-2014)
  +
* Spying on G20 delegations using hacked USB sticks in gift bags (2013)
   
 
The following examples are to be considered before being created:
 
The following examples are to be considered before being created:
  +
* [[APT-29 attacks on ministries (2016-2017)]] (scarce information, difficult to fit in a table)
* [[Chinese infiltration into EU parliamentary proceedings (2018)]]
 
 
* [[China Telecom internet traffic misdirection (2010-2017)]]
 
* [[China Telecom internet traffic misdirection (2010-2017)]]
 
* [[Attempted hack of the OPCW (2018)]] : operation stopped in preparatory phase, not many technical details
 
* [[Attempted hack of the OPCW (2018)]] : operation stopped in preparatory phase, not many technical details
Line 159: Line 197:
 
* [[1718 sanctions committee hack (2016)]] : not too well-known
 
* [[1718 sanctions committee hack (2016)]] : not too well-known
 
* [[Shamoon 2.0 (2016)]] : similar to Shamoon (2012)
 
* [[Shamoon 2.0 (2016)]] : similar to Shamoon (2012)
* [[APT-29 attacks on ministries (2016-2017)]] (CCDCOE WIP)
 
 
* [[APT Turla hijacking systems of APT-34]] - see https://www.zdnet.com/article/russian-apt-turla-targets-35-countries-on-the-back-of-iranian-infrastructure/
 
* [[APT Turla hijacking systems of APT-34]] - see https://www.zdnet.com/article/russian-apt-turla-targets-35-countries-on-the-back-of-iranian-infrastructure/
   
Line 166: Line 203:
 
* [[Ukraine-Russia conflict (2014-)]]
 
* [[Ukraine-Russia conflict (2014-)]]
 
-->
 
-->
  +
  +
==National positions==
  +
<div style="column-count:3;-moz-column-count:3;-webkit-column-count:3">
  +
* [[National position of Australia (2020)|Australia (2020)]]
  +
* [[National position of Brazil (2021)|Brazil (2021)]]
  +
* [[National position of the Czech Republic (2020)|Czech Republic (2020)]]
  +
* Estonia ([[National position of Estonia (2019)|2019]] and [[National position of Estonia (2021)|2021]])
  +
* [[National position of Finland (2020)|Finland (2020)]]
  +
* [[National position of France (2019)|France (2019)]]
  +
* [[National position of Germany (2021)|Germany (2021)]]
  +
* [[National position of Iran (2020)|Iran (2020)]]
  +
* [[National position of Israel (2020)|Israel (2020)]]
  +
* [[National position of Japan (2021)|Japan (2021)]]
  +
* [[National position of Kazakhstan (2021)|Kazakhstan (2021)]]
  +
* [[National position of Kenya (2021)|Kenya (2021)]]
  +
* [[National position of the Netherlands (2019)|Netherlands (2019)]]
  +
* [[National position of New Zealand (2020)|New Zealand (2020)]]
  +
* [[National position of Norway (2021)|Norway (2021)]]
  +
* [[National position of Romania (2021)|Romania (2021)]]
  +
* [[National position of the Russian Federation (2021)|Russia (2021)]]
  +
* [[National position of Singapore (2021)|Singapore (2021)]]
  +
* [[National position of Switzerland (2021)|Switzerland (2021)]]
  +
* United Kingdom ([[National position of the United Kingdom (2018)|2018]] and [[National position of the United Kingdom (2021)|2021]])
  +
* United States ([[National position of the United States of America (2012)|2012]], [[National position of the United States of America (2016)|2016]] and [[National position of the United States of America (2020)|2020]])
  +
</div>
   
 
==Keywords==
 
==Keywords==

Latest revision as of 07:04, 23 September 2021

This page serves as the equivalent of a table of contents in a printed book. It contains an updated list of all substantive articles in the Toolkit.

1 About the project[edit | edit source]

2 Scenarios[edit | edit source]

3 Legal concepts[edit | edit source]

3.1 General international law[edit | edit source]

3.2 Specialised regimes of peacetime international law[edit | edit source]

3.3 Use of force, conflict and international law[edit | edit source]

4 Real-world examples[edit | edit source]

5 National positions[edit | edit source]

6 Keywords[edit | edit source]

2007  2008  2010  2011  2012  2014  2015  2016  2017  2018  2019  2020  2021  Advanced persistent threat  Article 36  Attack (international humanitarian law)  Attacks against persons  Attribution  Combatancy  Computer data  Conduct of hostilities  Countermeasures  Crime of genocide  Crimes against humanity  Critical infrastructure  Cyber weapons  Cybercrime  DDoS  Deception  Defacement  Diplomatic and consular law  Direct participation in hostilities  Distinction  Due diligence  Economic cyber espionage  Effective control  Election interference  Evidence  Example  Flag State jurisdiction  Freedom of navigation  Hospitals  Hybrid threats  Indiscriminate attack  Individual criminal responsibility under international law  Industrial control system  International armed conflict  International cooperation  International human rights law  International humanitarian law  International organization  International sanctions  International telecommunication law  Internationalization  Internet access  Inviolability  Law of the sea  Legal concepts  Legal personality  Legal review of cyber weapons  Malware  Maritime law enforcement  Mass surveillance  Means and methods of cyber warfare  Medical units  Methods and means of warfare  Military objectives  Misattribution  Mistake of fact  Misuse of established indicators  National position  Neutrality  Non-State actors  Non-international armed conflict  Object  Overall control  Peaceful settlement of disputes  Peacetime cyber espionage  Perfidy and ruses of war  Persona non grata  Plea of necessity  Premises of the mission  Prohibition of genocide  Prohibition of intervention  Ransomware  Retorsion  Scenario  Self-defence  Sovereign immunity  Sovereignty  Specially protected persons, objects and activities  State organs  State responsibility  Stuxnet  Supply chain  Targeted restrictive measures  Targeting  Threats  Transboundary harm  Use of force  Voluntary norms  War crimes  Weapons review