Editing National position of France (2019)

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== Conflict qualification (IAC/NIAC)==
 
== Conflict qualification (IAC/NIAC)==
 
<section begin=FR_2019 conflict qualification/><section begin=FR_2019 IAC /><section begin=FR_2019 NIAC />
 
<section begin=FR_2019 conflict qualification/><section begin=FR_2019 IAC /><section begin=FR_2019 NIAC />
Cyberoperations that constitute hostilities between two or more States may characterise the existence of international armed conflict (IAC). Likewise, prolonged cyberoperations by government armed forces against one or more armed groups or by several armed groups between themselves may constitute a non-international armed conflict (NIAC), where such groups show a minimum level of organisation and the effects of such operations reach a sufficient threshold of violence. They are generally military operations concurrent with conventional military operations: that is why it is not difficult to categorise an armed conflict situation. While an armed conflict consisting exclusively of digital activities cannot be ruled out in principle, it is based on the capacity of autonomous cyberoperations to reach the threshold of violence required to be categorised as such. Although virtual, cyberoperations still fall within the geographical scope of IHL, insofar as their effects must arise on the territory of the States party to the IAC and on the territory where the NIAC hostilities occur.<ref>[https://www.defense.gouv.fr/content/download/567648/9770527/file/international+law+applied+to+operations+in+cyberspace.pdf Ministry of Defense of France, International Law Applied to Operations in Cyberspace, 9 September 2019], 12.</ref><section end=FR_2019 conflict qualification/><section end=FR_2019 IAC /><section end=FR_2019 NIAC />
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Cyberoperations that constitute hostilities between two or more States may characterise the existence of international armed conflict (IAC). Likewise, prolonged cyberoperations by government armed forces against one or more armed groups or by several armed groups between themselves may constitute a non-international armed conflict (NIAC), where such groups show a minimum level of organisation and the effects of such operations reach a sufficient threshold of violence. They are generally military operations concurrent with conventional military operations: that is why it is not difficult to categorise an armed conflict situation. While an armed conflict consisting exclusively of digital activities cannot be ruled out in principle, it is based on the capacity of autonomous cyberoperations to reach the threshold of violence required to be categorised as such. Although virtual, cyberoperations still fall within the geographical scope of IHL, insofar as their effects must arise on the territory of the States party to the IAC and on the territory where the NIAC hostilities occur.<ref>[https://www.defense.gouv.fr/content/download/567648/9770527/file/international+law+applied+to+operations+in+cyberspace.pdf Ministry of Defense of France, International Law Applied to Operations in Cyberspace, 9 September 2019], 12.</ref><section end=FR conflict qualification/><section end=FR IAC /><section end=FR NIAC />
   
 
== [[Conduct of hostilities]] ==
 
== [[Conduct of hostilities]] ==

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