National position of Japan (2021)
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==[[Prohibition of intervention]]== <section begin=JP_2021 prohibition of intervention /> "With respect to the principle of non-intervention, cyber operations may constitute unlawful intervention when requirements including the element of coercion, which are clarified in the Nicaragua judgement (1986), are met."<ref>[https://www.mofa.go.jp/files/100200935.pdf Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, Basic Position of the Government of Japan on International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations, 16 June 2021], 2</ref> "An act of causing physical damage or loss of functionality by means of cyber operations against critical infrastructure, including medical institutions, may constitute an unlawful intervention, depending on the circumstances, and at any rate, it may constitute a violation of sovereignty. As various opinions were expressed on the relationship between violation of sovereignty and unlawful intervention at the sixth GGE and the OEWG, it is desirable that a common understanding be forged through State practices and future discussions." <ref>[https://www.mofa.go.jp/files/100200935.pdf Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, Basic Position of the Government of Japan on International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations, 16 June 2021], 3</ref><section end=JP_2021 prohibition of intervention />
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