Editing National position of New Zealand (2020)

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"This is the national position of New Zealand on international law applicable to cyberspace operations. It was issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade on 1 December 2020."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020]</ref>
 
"This is the national position of New Zealand on international law applicable to cyberspace operations. It was issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade on 1 December 2020."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020]</ref>
   
==[[Applicability of international law]]==
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==Applicability of international law==
<section begin=NZ_2020 applicability />
 
 
"New Zealand supports an international rules-based system that promotes an open, secure, stable, accessible and peaceful online environment and encourages responsible state behaviour in cyberspace."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 1.</ref>
 
"New Zealand supports an international rules-based system that promotes an open, secure, stable, accessible and peaceful online environment and encourages responsible state behaviour in cyberspace."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 1.</ref>
   
 
"[..]International law applies online as it does offline. Applicable international law includes: the United Nations Charter; the law of state responsibility; international humanitarian law; and international human rights law."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 1.</ref>
 
"[..]International law applies online as it does offline. Applicable international law includes: the United Nations Charter; the law of state responsibility; international humanitarian law; and international human rights law."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 1.</ref>
   
"[..]As international law has evolved primarily with a territorial, physical conception of the world, care is required to apply the established rules and principles of international law appropriately to the multi-layered context of cyberspace. Applied appropriately, existing international law – as part of the framework of responsible state behaviour in cyberspace – provides an effective toolkit to regulate state behaviour online. This includes the ability to identify breaches of international law in cyberspace, attribute state responsibility for those breaches, and guide responses from victim states."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 1.</ref> <section end=NZ_2020 applicability />
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"[..]As international law has evolved primarily with a territorial, physical conception of the world, care is required to apply the established rules and principles of international law appropriately to the multi-layered context of cyberspace. Applied appropriately, existing international law – as part of the framework of responsible state behaviour in cyberspace – provides an effective toolkit to regulate state behaviour online. This includes the ability to identify breaches of international law in cyberspace, attribute state responsibility for those breaches, and guide responses from victim states."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 1.</ref>
   
 
==Self-defence, armed attack and use of force==
 
==[[Self-defence|Self-defence, armed attack and use of force]]==
 
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 self-defence, armed attack and use of force />
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 self-defence, armed attack and use of force />
 
"The United Nations Charter and customary international law rules concerning the use of force apply to state activity in cyberspace. Relevant obligations include:
 
"The United Nations Charter and customary international law rules concerning the use of force apply to state activity in cyberspace. Relevant obligations include:
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b. must be consistent with relevant UN Charter and customary international law obligations, including notification to the United Nations, necessity, and proportionality."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 4.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 self-defence, armed attack and use of force />
 
b. must be consistent with relevant UN Charter and customary international law obligations, including notification to the United Nations, necessity, and proportionality."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 4.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 self-defence, armed attack and use of force />
   
==[[Prohibition of intervention]]==
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==Prohibition of intervention==
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 prohibition of intervention />
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 prohibition of intervention />
 
"Malicious state cyber activity may be inconsistent with the rule of non-intervention. Such activity will violate the rule of non-intervention if it:
 
"Malicious state cyber activity may be inconsistent with the rule of non-intervention. Such activity will violate the rule of non-intervention if it:
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or its electricity or telecommunications network."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 2.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 prohibition of intervention />
 
or its electricity or telecommunications network."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 2.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 prohibition of intervention />
   
==[[Sovereignty]]==
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==Sovereignty==
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 sovereignty />
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 sovereignty />
 
"The principle of sovereignty prohibits the interference by one state in the inherently governmental functions of another and prohibits the exercise of state power or authority on the territory of another state. In the physical realm, the principle has legal effect through the prohibition on the use of force, through the rule of non-intervention and also through a standalone rule of territorial sovereignty. Subject to limited exceptions (e.g. authorisation by the United Nations Security Council, self-defence, consent), that standalone rule prohibits a state from sending its troops or police forces into or through, or its aircraft over, foreign territory, and prohibits a state from carrying out official investigations or otherwise exercising jurisdiction on foreign territory.
 
"The principle of sovereignty prohibits the interference by one state in the inherently governmental functions of another and prohibits the exercise of state power or authority on the territory of another state. In the physical realm, the principle has legal effect through the prohibition on the use of force, through the rule of non-intervention and also through a standalone rule of territorial sovereignty. Subject to limited exceptions (e.g. authorisation by the United Nations Security Council, self-defence, consent), that standalone rule prohibits a state from sending its troops or police forces into or through, or its aircraft over, foreign territory, and prohibits a state from carrying out official investigations or otherwise exercising jurisdiction on foreign territory.
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A detailed factual enquiry is required in each case to determine whether state cyber activity that has effects manifesting on the territory of another state, but which does not amount to a use of force or a prohibited intervention, nonetheless involves a violation of the standalone rule of territorial sovereignty. That factual enquiry should take into account the scale and significance of the effects, the objective of the activity, and the nature of the target."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 2-3.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 sovereignty />
 
A detailed factual enquiry is required in each case to determine whether state cyber activity that has effects manifesting on the territory of another state, but which does not amount to a use of force or a prohibited intervention, nonetheless involves a violation of the standalone rule of territorial sovereignty. That factual enquiry should take into account the scale and significance of the effects, the objective of the activity, and the nature of the target."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 2-3.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 sovereignty />
   
==[[Due diligence]]==
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==Due diligence==
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 due diligence />
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 due diligence />
 
"An agreed norm of responsible state behaviour provides that states should not knowingly allow their territory to be used for internationally wrongful acts using ICTs. Whether this norm also reflects a binding legal obligation is not settled. Some states consider that, subject to certain knowledge and capacity requirements, customary international law requires states to take reasonable measures to put an end to malicious cyber activity which is conducted from, or routed through, their territory, if the activity is contrary to the rights of another state.
 
"An agreed norm of responsible state behaviour provides that states should not knowingly allow their territory to be used for internationally wrongful acts using ICTs. Whether this norm also reflects a binding legal obligation is not settled. Some states consider that, subject to certain knowledge and capacity requirements, customary international law requires states to take reasonable measures to put an end to malicious cyber activity which is conducted from, or routed through, their territory, if the activity is contrary to the rights of another state.
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New Zealand is not yet convinced that a cyber-specific “due diligence” obligation has crystallised in international law. It is clear that states are not obliged to monitor all cyber activities on their territories or to prevent all malicious use of cyber infrastructure within their borders. If a legally binding due diligence obligation were to apply to cyber activities, New Zealand considers it should apply only where states have actual, rather than constructive, knowledge of the malicious activity, and should only require states to take reasonable steps within their capacity to bring the activity to an end."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 3.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 due diligence />
 
New Zealand is not yet convinced that a cyber-specific “due diligence” obligation has crystallised in international law. It is clear that states are not obliged to monitor all cyber activities on their territories or to prevent all malicious use of cyber infrastructure within their borders. If a legally binding due diligence obligation were to apply to cyber activities, New Zealand considers it should apply only where states have actual, rather than constructive, knowledge of the malicious activity, and should only require states to take reasonable steps within their capacity to bring the activity to an end."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 3.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 due diligence />
   
==[[Retorsion]]==
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==Retorsion==
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 retorsion />
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 retorsion />
 
"Regardless of whether the activity amounts to an internationally wrongful act, a state may always attribute
 
"Regardless of whether the activity amounts to an internationally wrongful act, a state may always attribute
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acts not inconsistent with international law)."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 3.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 retorsion />
 
acts not inconsistent with international law)."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 3.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 retorsion />
   
==[[State responsibility]]==
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==State responsibility==
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 state responsibility />
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 state responsibility />
 
"Where a state is subject to cyber activity that amounts to an internationally wrongful act, it may also invoke the international legal responsibility of the responsible state. States are responsible for internationally wrongful acts that can be attributed to them, including wrongful cyber activities. An internationally wrongful act can be attributed to a state if it was carried out by organs of the state, persons or entities empowered to exercise elements of governmental authority on behalf of that state, or agents acting on the instructions of, or under the direction or control of the state; or where the state acknowledges and adopts the act as its own. States may also be internationally responsible for aiding or assisting internationally wrongful cyber activity carried out by another state."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 3.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 state responsibility />
 
"Where a state is subject to cyber activity that amounts to an internationally wrongful act, it may also invoke the international legal responsibility of the responsible state. States are responsible for internationally wrongful acts that can be attributed to them, including wrongful cyber activities. An internationally wrongful act can be attributed to a state if it was carried out by organs of the state, persons or entities empowered to exercise elements of governmental authority on behalf of that state, or agents acting on the instructions of, or under the direction or control of the state; or where the state acknowledges and adopts the act as its own. States may also be internationally responsible for aiding or assisting internationally wrongful cyber activity carried out by another state."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 3.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 state responsibility />
   
==[[Attribution]]==
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==Attribution==
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 attribution />
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 attribution />
 
"States should act in good faith and take care when attributing legal responsibility to another state for malicious cyber activity. While international law prescribes no clear evidential standard for attributing legal responsibility for internationally wrongful acts, a victim state must be sufficiently confident of the identity of the state responsible. What constitutes sufficient confidence in any case will depend on the facts and nature of the activity. While any legal attribution should be underpinned by a sound evidential basis, there is no general obligation on the attributing state to disclose that basis. However, a state may choose as a matter of policy to disclose specific information that it considered in making its attribution decision, and may be required to defend any such decision as part of international legal proceedings.<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 3.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 attribution />
 
"States should act in good faith and take care when attributing legal responsibility to another state for malicious cyber activity. While international law prescribes no clear evidential standard for attributing legal responsibility for internationally wrongful acts, a victim state must be sufficiently confident of the identity of the state responsible. What constitutes sufficient confidence in any case will depend on the facts and nature of the activity. While any legal attribution should be underpinned by a sound evidential basis, there is no general obligation on the attributing state to disclose that basis. However, a state may choose as a matter of policy to disclose specific information that it considered in making its attribution decision, and may be required to defend any such decision as part of international legal proceedings.<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 3.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 attribution />
   
==[[Countermeasures]]==
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==Countermeasures==
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 countermeasures />
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 countermeasures />
 
"If State A attributes internationally wrongful cyber activity to State B, State A may demand reparation and guarantees of non repetition and/or utilise peaceful dispute resolution mechanisms, including the International Court of Justice where available. State A may also respond with countermeasures against State B. Countermeasures are otherwise internationally wrongful acts that are permitted when undertaken to induce another state to comply with its obligations under international law. They may include, but are not limited to, cyber activities that would otherwise be prohibited by international law. Any countermeasure must:
 
"If State A attributes internationally wrongful cyber activity to State B, State A may demand reparation and guarantees of non repetition and/or utilise peaceful dispute resolution mechanisms, including the International Court of Justice where available. State A may also respond with countermeasures against State B. Countermeasures are otherwise internationally wrongful acts that are permitted when undertaken to induce another state to comply with its obligations under international law. They may include, but are not limited to, cyber activities that would otherwise be prohibited by international law. Any countermeasure must:
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Given the collective interest in the observance of international law in cyberspace, and the potential asymmetry between malicious and victim states, New Zealand is open to the proposition that victim states, in limited circumstances, may request assistance from other states in applying proportionate countermeasures to induce compliance by the state acting in breach of international law. In those circumstances, collective countermeasures would be subject to the same limitations set out above."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 3-4.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 countermeasures />
 
Given the collective interest in the observance of international law in cyberspace, and the potential asymmetry between malicious and victim states, New Zealand is open to the proposition that victim states, in limited circumstances, may request assistance from other states in applying proportionate countermeasures to induce compliance by the state acting in breach of international law. In those circumstances, collective countermeasures would be subject to the same limitations set out above."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 3-4.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 countermeasures />
   
==[[International humanitarian law (jus in bello)|International humanitarian law (''jus in bello'')]]==
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==International humanitarian law (''jus in bello'')==
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 IHL />
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 IHL />
"In situations of armed conflict, international humanitarian law applies to cyber activities. [...] All cyber “attacks” must comply with the principles of military necessity, humanity, proportionality and distinction."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 4.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 IHL />
+
"In situations of armed conflict, international humanitarian law applies to cyber activities. A cyber activity may constitute an “attack” for the purposes of international humanitarian law where it results in death, injury, or physical damage, including loss of functionality, equivalent to that caused by a kinetic attack. All cyber “attacks” must comply with the principles of military necessity, humanity, proportionality and distinction."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 4.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 IHL />
 
 
==[[Attack (international humanitarian law)|Attack (international humanitarian law)]]==
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 Attack (international humanitarian law) />
 
"[..] A cyber activity may constitute an “attack” for the purposes of international humanitarian law where it results in death, injury, or physical damage, including loss of functionality, equivalent to that caused by a kinetic attack."<ref>New Zealand, ‘[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace]’ (1 December 2020) 4.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 Attack (international humanitarian law) />
 
   
==[[International human rights law]]==
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==International human rights law==
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 international human rights law />
 
<section begin=NZ_2020 international human rights law />
 
"International human rights law applies to cyber activities. States must comply with their obligations to protect and respect human rights online, including the right to freedom of expression and the right not to be subjected to arbitrary and unlawful interference with privacy. States are obliged to respect and ensure human rights to those individuals within their territory and subject to their jurisdiction. The circumstances in which states exercise jurisdiction, through cyber means, over individuals outside their territory is currently unsettled and would benefit from further discussion in multilateral fora."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 4.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 international human rights law />
 
"International human rights law applies to cyber activities. States must comply with their obligations to protect and respect human rights online, including the right to freedom of expression and the right not to be subjected to arbitrary and unlawful interference with privacy. States are obliged to respect and ensure human rights to those individuals within their territory and subject to their jurisdiction. The circumstances in which states exercise jurisdiction, through cyber means, over individuals outside their territory is currently unsettled and would benefit from further discussion in multilateral fora."<ref>[https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/The%20Application%20of%20International%20Law%20to%20State%20Activity%20in%20Cyberspace.pdf The Application of International Law to State Activity in Cyberspace, 1 December 2020], 4.</ref><section end=NZ_2020 international human rights law />
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