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! scope="col" style="background-color:#ffffaa;" | [[Perfidy and ruses of war]]
 
! scope="col" style="background-color:#ffffaa;" | [[Perfidy and ruses of war]]
 
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|[[File:Perfidy+ruses-of-war.svg|left|frameless|200x200px]]The [[Perfidy and ruses of war|prohibition of perfidy]], as defined in AP I, covers the killing, injuring or capturing of an adversary by resort to acts inviting the confidence of an adversary to lead him to believe that he is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protection under the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, with intent to betray that confidence.<ref>[https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/ART/470-750046?OpenDocument Art 37(1) AP I].</ref> Although the prohibition is generally understood to exist also under customary international law, not all of its elements are universally considered to have crystallized into custom. In particular, opinions diverge on whether the customary prohibition covers capturing enemy personnel: for example, the US takes the narrower view that it does not,<ref>[https://dod.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/DoD%20Law%20of%20War%20Manual%20-%20June%202015%20Updated%20Dec%202016.pdf?ver=2016-12-13-172036-190 US DoD Law of War Manual], para 5.22.2 (“It may not be prohibited to invite the confidence of the adversary that he or she is obligated to accord protection under the law of war, for certain purposes (e.g., to facilitate … capturing enemy personnel … )”).</ref> while the ICRC has taken the opposite broader view.<ref>[https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/customary-ihl/eng/docs/v1_rul_rule65 ICRC CIHL Study, rule 65].</ref>
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|<!--[[File:?????.svg|left|frameless|200x200px]]-->The [[Perfidy and ruses of war|prohibition of perfidy]], as defined in AP I, covers the killing, injuring or capturing of an adversary by resort to acts inviting the confidence of an adversary to lead him to believe that he is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protection under the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, with intent to betray that confidence.<ref>[https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/ART/470-750046?OpenDocument Art 37(1) AP I].</ref> Although the prohibition is generally understood to exist also under customary international law, not all of its elements are universally considered to have crystallized into custom. In particular, opinions diverge on whether the customary prohibition covers capturing enemy personnel: for example, the US takes the narrower view that it does not,<ref>[https://dod.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/DoD%20Law%20of%20War%20Manual%20-%20June%202015%20Updated%20Dec%202016.pdf?ver=2016-12-13-172036-190 US DoD Law of War Manual], para 5.22.2 (“It may not be prohibited to invite the confidence of the adversary that he or she is obligated to accord protection under the law of war, for certain purposes (e.g., to facilitate … capturing enemy personnel … )”).</ref> while the ICRC has taken the opposite broader view.<ref>[https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/customary-ihl/eng/docs/v1_rul_rule65 ICRC CIHL Study, rule 65].</ref>
  
 
Accordingly, in order for a cyber operation to qualify as prohibited perfidy under customary international law, it must simultaneously meet the following four conditions:
 
Accordingly, in order for a cyber operation to qualify as prohibited perfidy under customary international law, it must simultaneously meet the following four conditions:

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