Specially protected persons, objects, and activities (international humanitarian law)

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National positions[edit | edit source]

Costa Rica (2023)[edit | edit source]

"58. IHL affords specific protection to certain persons, objects and activities, such as medical personnel and units; humanitarian personnel and relief objects; and objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population."[1]

Sweden (2022)[edit | edit source]

"Cyber operations in the context of an armed conflict need to comply not only with rules governing the conduct of hostilities; certain persons, objects and activities are subject to special protection, such as medical personnel and units, including their cyber infrastructure, and religious or humanitarian personnel and objects."[2]

Switzerland (2021)[edit | edit source]

"Full compliance with IHL is not limited to the rules and principles governing the conduct of hostilities. There are other specific rules of IHL that must be respected, including when conducting military operations that do not qualify as an 'attack'. For example, certain categories of persons and objects are subject to special protection, such as medical, religious or humanitarian personnel and objects, which must be respected and protected in all circumstances.

This is also applicable to cyberspace. For cyber operations that are linked to any of these specially protected persons or objects, or to other activities governed by IHL, all of the relevant, specific rules must be observed."[3]

Appendixes[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

Notes and references[edit | edit source]

Bibliography and further reading[edit | edit source]