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Definition[edit | edit source]

An act of retorsion is “an unfriendly but nevertheless lawful act by the aggrieved party against the wrongdoer”.[1] Such acts may include the prohibition of or limitations upon normal diplomatic relations, the imposition of trade embargoes or the withdrawal of voluntary aid programmes.[2] Cyber-specific retorsions may include sending warnings to cyber operatives belonging to another State, observing the adversary’s cyber activities on one’s own network using tools such as “honeypots”, or slowing down malicious cyber operations conducted by other States.[3]

Appendixes[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

Notes and references[edit | edit source]

  1. E Zoller, Peacetime Unilateral Remedies: An Analysis of Countermeasures (Transnational 1984) 5.
  2. Articles on State Responsibility, commentary to Part Three, Chapter II, para. 3.
  3. Jeff Kosseff, ‘Retorsion as a Response to Ongoing Cyber Operations’ in Taťána Jančárková et al (eds), 20/20 Vision: The Next Decade (CCD COE 2020) 17–22.

Bibliography and further reading[edit | edit source]